Shrubs to small trees up to 5 m, branching in the upper stems, these spreading. Young stems moderately to densely hirsute to hispid with few-rayed (4–6) porrect-stellate trichomes, these sometimes multangulate, on multiseriate stalks 0.3–1.2 mm long, the rays 0.2–0.8 mm, usually with a 2–3-celled central ray (midpoint) longer than the 1-celled lateral ones; old growth glabrescent to pubescent, usually with broken trichomes creating a hispid vestiture of multiseriate stalk remnants. Bark of older stems yellowish-white, usually shiny; new growth whitish-green to dark purple near the insertion of the inflorescence, always shiny.
Sympodial units usually trifoliate, rarely di or plurifoliate, often with solitary leaves; if geminate, leaves paired only at branching points and differing mainly in size, the smaller up to 1/3 the size of the larger ones.
Leaves simple, the blades 1.7–11.8 (13) cm long, 1.2–4.8 cm wide, narrowly elliptic to ovate-elliptic, membranaceous, weakly discolorous (dark shiny green above, pale green beneath when fresh), the abaxial surfaces moderately to densely hirsute, the lamina always visible, with short- (more often on the lamina) to long-stalked (more often on primary and secondary veins) porrect-stellate trichomes with 3–5 lateral rays supported by a multiseriate stalk 0.3–0.9 (1.4) mm and a 2–3 celled central ray somewhat longer than the lateral ones, 0.8–1.2 mm long, the adaxial surfaces moderately to densely hirsute, the lamina always visible, with mixed hyaline unbranched trichomes up to 1.8 mm long, and sessile (more often on the lamina) to short-stalked (more often on primary and secondary veins) multangulate-stellate trichomes, frequently with few (1–4) lateral rays and a 2–3-celled central ray much longer than the others, 0.8–2 mm long and supported by a multiseriate stalk up to 0.4 mm long; venation camptodromous, impressed or not above (barely visible in dried material), raised beneath, the secondary veins 5–9 pairs; base rounded to cuneate, asymmetric; margins entire, slightly revolute; apex acute to long attenuate-caudate (only acute on the smaller geminate leaves); petioles 1.8–5.5 mm long, densely hirsute, with the same trichomes as those of the abaxial midrib.
Inflorescence an elongated unbranched cyme, terminal, lateral, internodal, or subopposite the leaves, when internodal, changing the orientation of the branch, (see commentary), the axes (0.35)0.9–4.3 cm long, with (3)6–15 flowers, subsessile to pedunculate, the peduncles 0.1–1.47 cm long, moderately hirsute with porrect-stellate trichomes like those of the stems, the rachis pale green, densely pubescent with three types of trichomes: hyaline, unbranched, 2–4-celled, eglandular or glandular-capitate trichomes, sessile to short-stalked multangulate-stellate trichomes with few (1–4) lateral rays or only the 2–4-celled, sometimes glandular-capitate central ray developed, this much longer than the others, and supported by a multiseriate stalk up to 0.4 mm long, and long-stalked porrect-stellate trichomes like those of the peduncle with stalks up to 0.9 mm long; pedicels 0.3–1.2 cm long in flower, 1.9–2.5 cm in fruit, pale green to dark pink to purplish at base, articulated at base, 1 mm in diameter at base, densely pubescent with the same unbranched trichomes found on the rachis, almost all with a glandular head, up to 2 mm long, mixed with sessile to short-stalked multangulate trichomes with 1–4 lateral rays and a longer central ray. Buds slightly elongated with developed calyx lobes, the corolla nearly included even when fully developed.
Flowers perfect, 5-merous. Calyx tube 1–2 mm long, with lanceolate to narrow-ovate lobes 6–8 mm long, 3–4 mm wide in flower, the apices acuminate, strongly accrescent in fruit, the lobes broadly ovate to cordate, 8.6–12 mm long, 8–10 mm wide, the apices acute, densely covered abaxially with the same trichome types of the rachis, but the porrect-stellate hairs with shorter stalks and the central ray always longer than the others and often glandular, adaxially with unbranched 2–4-celled (sometimes with a poorly developed secondary ray) glandular capitate trichomes up to 2 mm long, the gland ellipsoidal, these commonly found also on the margin, associated with sessile to subsessile globose dark glandular trichomes, these concentrated on the midveins and near the base. Corolla 1.3–1.7 cm in diameter, white, stellate, lobed up to ¾ to the base, the lobes 4–6 mm long, 4.5–6.5 mm wide, deltoid to ovate, with acute, slightly involute apices, spreading at anthesis, sparsely to moderately pubescent abaxially with the same trichome types found adaxially on the calyx and with a tuft of small unbranched eglandular trichomes at apex, glabrous adaxially. Filament tube up to 1 mm long, with a minute free portion less than 1 mm long, glabrous; anthers 2.8–4 mm long, 1.3–1.5 mm wide, sometimes slightly unequal, elliptic to oblong, connivent, yellow, glabrous on both faces, poricidal at apex, with the pores directed introrsely, opening into longitudinal slits with age. Ovary glabrous; style 6–7 mm long, cylindrical; stigma clavate, with a papillose surface.
Fruit a globose berry 1–1.4 cm in diameter, white to pale green when immature, purple to black when mature, shiny, glabrous, drying brown to dark, completely covered by the accrescent calyx which spreads open at maturity.
Seeds 9–31 (35) per fruit, 2.3–3.4 mm long, 1.7–2.3 mm wide, flattened, reniform, golden to brown, the surfaces with irregular pits.
Solanum anisocladum occurs in forest edges of the Atlantic coastal rainforest of northeastern Brazil in the states of Alagoas, Bahia, and Pernambuco, in partial to complete shade, at elevations of 500–700 m. Primary wet forest fragments at this elevation are quite rare in northeastern Brazil today, and the type collection, despite the fact that it was found in a forest edge, was from a well preserved fragment.
Endangered B1 a,b (i, ii, iii, iv). Solanum anisocladum is known from only three localities and its calculated extent of occurrence using the MCP is 834 km2. Despite the fact that the Bahia registry is far from the one in Pernambuco state, the MCP reflects the narrow range of coastal rainforest where the species is expected to occur. Although the type locality is now part of a private reserve owned by a sugar company (RPPN Frei Caneca), it consists of a small group of forest fragments in a severely damaged landscape mainly modified by extensive agriculture based on monoculture (plantations). Generally, the Atlantic coastal rainforest has been severely damaged in northeastern Brazil in the past decades due to urban expansion and extensive farming.