Solanum cyathophorum M.Nee & Farruggia
  • "M. N. & Farruggia, J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 4(2): 596. 2010., 2010."


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Solanum cyathophorum M.Nee & Farruggia. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0001027365. Accessed on: 20 Oct 2020'

General Information

Tree 3–10 (–20) m × ca. 60 cm dbh. Trunk with sharp, stout broad-based prickles, the bark light to dark tan; flowering stems unarmed, glabrous to densely pubescent with sessile to short-stalked light tan multangulate-stellate hairs, the multangulate apex 0.1–0.3 mm in diameter, the rays 7–10+.
Sympodial units difoliate, geminate.
Leaves simple, the blades 15–30 × 7–15 cm or more, ca. 2 times as long as wide, elliptic to lanceolate, chartaceous to subcoriaceous, slightly discolorous, the fresh and dried leaves dark green and somewhat shiny adaxially, lighter green to golden-tan abaxially, the adaxial surface nearly glabrous to moderately pubescent with stalked reduced-stellate hairs, the stalks ca. 0.1–0.3 mm, multiseriate at the base, rays 1(–2), eglandular, the abaxial surface mostly densely pubescent with golden-tan sessile to multiseriate-stalked porrect-stellate hairs, the stalks 0–0.03 mm, the rays 5–8, the midpoints absent; major veins 8–9 on either side of midvein; base cuneate to oblique; margin entire to shallowly repand; apex acute to acuminate; petioles (2–) 4–5 cm, glabrous to densely pubescent with hairs like those of the young stems.
Inflorescences 2.5–4.5 cm, extraaxillary, unbranched or branched, with 8–15 flowers, the plants strongly andromonoecious, with one to few hermaphroditic flower(s) at the base of the inflorescence and all other flowers functionally staminate, the axes densely stellate-pubescent with hairs like those of the stems, unarmed; peduncle 2–5 mm; rachis 2.3–4.2 cm; pedicels 10–15 mm in flower and fruit, densely congested, spaced 1–4 mm apart, articulated at base.
Flowers 5-merous, heterstylous and the plants andromonoecious. Calyx ca. 4.5 mm long, the tube at anthesis 1.1–1.4 mm, the lobes ca. 2.5 × 2 mm, the apex truncate to broadly obtuse, the abaxial surface densely pubescent with short-stalked to sessile porrect-stellate hairs, unarmed; fruiting calyx tube becoming slightly inflated and knobby, the lobes 5–5.5 × 3–3.9 mm, slightly reflexed, subtending the fruit. Corolla 4.5–5 cm in diameter, 2.2–2.3 cm long, stellate to rotate-stellate, lobed for more than half of its length, membranaceous, violet to blue, the tube 6–7.5 mm, the lobes 11–14 × 3–3.5 mm, lanceolate, with moderate interpetalar tissue, sparsely pubescent adaxially with sessile porrect-stellate hairs, the rays 5–8, the midpoints often pronounced, ca. 0.1 mm long, densely pubescent abaxially along central portion of lobes with sessile porrect-stellate hairs. Stamens equal, the filament tube 0–0.1 mm, the free part of the filaments 1.5–1.8 mm, glabrous; anthers ca. 13 × 2.8 mm, tapered, not connivent, yellow, the pores directed distally, opening into longitudinal slits with age. Ovary glabrous to sparsely pubescent with stalked glandular hairs; style in hermaphroditic flower 14–15 × 0.2–0.5 mm, cylindrical, emergent from anther column, curved at apex, glabrous or sparsely pubescent in lower half with sessile stellate or short-stalked unbranched glandular hairs; style in staminate flower 4–4.5 × ca. 0.2 mm, cylindrical, included within anther column, straight at apex, glabrous or sparsely pubescent in lower half with sessile stellate or short-stalked unbranched glandular hairs; stigma capitate, slightly bilobed.
Fruit a berry, 1–1.9 cm in diameter, globose, apparently green and juicy at maturity, glabrous, the pericarp thin.
Seeds 2.6–3 × ca. 2.5 mm, strongly flattened, reniform in outline, orange to light brown, the surface rugose.

  • Provided by: [E].SolanaceaeSource.org
    • Morphology

      Árboles o arbolitos, 3-20 m de altura. Tallo anguloso, unidades simpodiales uni-foliadas, ocasionalmente bifoliadas-geminadas; indumento dorado, ferrugíneo u ocre, glabrescente con la edad, tricomas usualmente equinados, rara vez estrellados, sésiles, algunas veces con estípites, hasta 2 mm de largo, cuando estrellados con 7 a 10 radios, punto medio más corto que los radios laterales. Hojas con pecíolo de 1-4 (-6) cm de largo; lámina 11-26 x (3-) 6-14 cm, ampliamente elíptica o lanceolada, ligeramente discólora, margen repanda, ocasionalmente angulosa en las hojas jóvenes, base asimétrica, cuneada, ápice cortamente acuminado, hasta 15 mm de largo; superficie abaxial suave al tacto, la adaxial escabriúscula, suave al tacto cuando se pierde el indumento; indumento amarillo pálido, dorado, ferrugíneo u ocráceo, con tricomas estrellados, corto estipitados y punto medio más corto que los radios, en la superficie abaxial con 6 a 8 radios, por la adaxial reducidos a 1 ó con 4 a 9 radios; nervios secundarios 6 a 9 pares, divergentes 40-60° respecto al nervio medio, en la superficie abaxial prominentes, en la adaxial impresos, los nervios secundarios y los de menor grado formando un retículo plano y amplio. Inflorescencia 4.5-10 cm de largo, usualmente simple, ocasionalmente ramificada, con 10 a 20 (40) flores principalmente hermafroditas, sésil o con pedúnculo de 8 mm de largo. Flores con pedicelo de 11-18 mm de largo; botones florales usualmente ovoides, 12-18 mm de largo y 4-6 mm de diámetro, con el cáliz cubriendo la corola sólo en los estadios tempranos de desarrollo, los lóbulos del cáliz nunca sobrepasan el botón floral. Cáliz 3.5-9 mm de largo, truncado en los botones florales y posteriormente lobulado por la ruptura de la membrana intersepalar, tubo 2-3 mm de largo, 3-6.5 mm de diámetro; lóbulos 2-4.5 x 2-4 mm, oblongos o rectangulares, ápice truncado o ampliamente obtuso y reflexo; la superficie abaxial con tricomas estrellados, usualmente sésiles, algunas veces con estípites hasta 2 mm de largo, punto medio corto o inconspicuo y con 5 a 12 ó más radios, la superficie adaxial glabra. Corola estrellada, tubo 1-2 (-4) mm de largo; lóbulos 13-20 (-26) x 1.5-3(-5) mm, oblongos, superficie abaxial con indumento amarillo claro, dorado o ferrugíneo, tricomas minutamente equinados, la adaxial con tricomas sésiles sobre el limbo y la nervadura central, con pocos a muchos radios; membrana interpetalar 2-3 (-4.5) x 1-3 mm, relación largo de la a membrana/longitud del lóbulo 1/6. Estambres 10-16 mm de largo; filamentos 1-2 mm de largo; anteras (9-) 13-15 x 1.5-2 mm, glabros y con glándulas en la parte más proximal. Ovario 1-1.5 mm de largo, 1-1.5 (-2) mm de diámetro, de superficie lisa y con indumento piloso y glandular, cuando es piloso los tricomas son sésiles con pocos a muchos radios; estilo 9-13 mm de largo, con tricomas estrellados; estigma capitado. Fruto 1.7-2.2 cm de diámetro, globoso, verde en la madurez, glabro, superficie lisa; exocarpo delgado, mesocarpo pulposo; cáliz persistente leñoso, tubo 2-4 mm de largo, 5.5-7.5 mm de diámetro, cubriendo 1/5 de la longitud del fruto. Semillas 3 mm de diá-metro, orbiculares, cubierta seminal con células irregulares, fibrilas sobre las paredes periclinales, paredes anticlinales gruesas, fuertemente sinuoladas, lisas, lumen estrecho y poco profundo.

    • Provided by: [B].Flora de Colombia
      • Distribution

        Solanum cyathophorum is found in clearings and open places in disturbed, transitional and lowland tropical rainforest, 200-1100 m in elevation, mainly along the eastern Andean slopes in Ecuador, but extending into southern Colombia and northern Peru.

      • Provided by: [E].SolanaceaeSource.org
        • Uses

          Ecuador: apumpu (Quichua, Hurtado 2733); apumpu yura (Neill et al. 6506); papa mandi (Freire et al. 2175); untukar (Shuar, Shiki RBAE222); bamba (Mowbray 702102); ttottopaje (Cofán, Cerón 301). Cerón 301 reports that the bark is used to induce vomiting.

        • Provided by: [E].SolanaceaeSource.org
          • Distribution Map

             
            • Native distribution
            Found in
            • Southern America Brazil Amazonas
            • Rondônia

              Bibliography

            • 1 M. N. & Farruggia, “J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 4(2): 596. 2010.”, 2010.

             Information From

            Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
            http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br
            Brazil Flora G (2014): Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020. v393.147. Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro. Dataset/Checklist. doi:10.15468/1mtkaw
            • A Group Brazil Flora, REFLORA Program
            Flora de Colombia
            http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/floradecolombia
            Betancur B. Julio., Aguirre-C. Jaime., Amat-G. Germán. (eds.) (2018–): Flora de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Published in http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/floradecolombia
            • B Instituto de Ciencias Naturales - Universidad Nacional de Colombia
            Global Tree Search
            https://tools.bgci.org/global_tree_search.php
            BGCI. 2018. GlobalTreeSearch online database. Botanic Gardens Conservation International. Richmond, U.K. Available at www.bgci.org. Accessed on 30/11/2018.
            • C Botanic Gardens Conservation International
            SolanaceaeSource.org
            http://solanaceaesource.org/
            PBI Solanum Project. 2017. Solanaceae Source. Jan.31st, 2015. http://www.solanaceaesource.org/.
            • D All Rights Reserved
            • E
            • F CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
            World Flora Online consortium
            http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
            World Flora Online Data. 2018.
            • G CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).