Solanum ensifolium Dunal
  • "Dunal, W. ex Dunal, Dunal, Dunal, Dunal, and P. ex Dunal, Prodr. [A. P. de Candolle] 13(1): 186. 1852., 1852."

Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Solanum ensifolium Dunal. Published on the Internet; Accessed on: 08 Jul 2020'

General Information

Shrub or small tree to 5 m, armed or unarmed; stems erect, if armed the prickles to 1 cm, usually bright orange, scattered along stems, pubescence dense, the trichomes sessile, porrect stellate to 0.7 mm in diameter, with 5-8 rays, the midpoints short or more commonly elongate and multicellular, to ca. 2 mm long; new growth densely pubescent with porrect stellate trichomes with elongate midpoints, the midpoints tangled; bark of older stems reddish brown, glabrescent.
Sympodial units plurifoliate.
Leaves simple, 5-18 x (1-)3-7 cm, narrowly elliptic, unarmed or with scattered straight orange prickles to 1 cm long on the midribs on both surfaces, the upper surfaces evenly pubescent with sessile porrect stellate trichomes to 0.5 mm in diameter with 4-6 rays and the midpoint equal to or shorter than the rays mixed with larger sessile or short-stalked porrect stellate trichomes to 1 mm in diameter with ca. 4 rays and elongate midpoints more than twice the length of the rays, the lower surfaces with the pubescence denser and the larger trichomes more often short-stalked; primary veins 20-31 pairs, prominent above and beneath, often drying yellowish brown; base acute to truncate, oblique; margins entire; apex acuminate; petioles 0.1-0.8 cm, densely pubescent with stellate trichomes with elongate midpoints like those of the stems.
Inflorescences lateral, to 12 cm long, simple, with up to 30 flowers, but only 1 or 2 open at a time, densely pubescent like the stems with a mixture of sessile porrect stellate trichomes with short and elongate midpoints; peduncle to 1.5 cm, un armed; pedicels 0.6-0.9 cm, ca. 0.5 mm in diameter, filiform, nodding at anthesis, densely pubescent like the inflorescence axis with stellate trichomes with elongate midpoints, articulated at the base; pedicel scars regular spaced in pairs 1-3 mm apart. Buds long tapering, the corolla strongly exserted from the calyx tube before anthesis.
Flowers all perfect; calyx tube 1-1.5 mm, conical, the lobes 1.5-2 mm, narrowly triangular, the apex elongate and pointed, pubescent with sessile porrect stellate trichomes with the midpoints more than twice the length of the rays; corolla 1.7-2 cm in diameter, white, narrowly stellate, lobed nearly to the base, the lobes 8-10 x 1.5-2.5 mm, reflexed at anthesis, abaxially densely pubescent with sessile porect stellate trichomes with elongate midpoints, adaxially glabrous but for a few weak stellate trichomes along the midvein; anthers 5.5-6 x ca. 1 mm, elongate and tapering, poricidal at the tips, the pores directed distally, the anther tube densely pubescent within with weak, tangled stellate trichomes, these enmeshing the style; filament tube ca. 0.5 mm, the free portion of the filaments ca. 0.5 mm, glabrous; ovary sparsely pubescent with minute simple gland-tipped trichomes ca. 0.1 mm long; style 6-6.5 mm, only just exceeding the anther tube, sparsely pubescent in the lower 1/3 with a few weak stellate trichomes; stigma somewhat clavate, the surface minutely papillate.
Fruit a globose berry, 0.6-0.7 cm in diameter, black when ripe, the pericarp thin and shiny, glabrous; fruiting pedicels 0.7-0.8 cm, ca. 1 mm in diameter, sharply bent at the base so the berries all hang off one side of the axis.
Seeds 10-20 per berry, ca. 1.5 x 1-1.5 mm, flattened reniform, pale yellowish tan, the surfaces minutely pitted, the testal cells sinuate or rectangular.

  • Provided by: [C]
    • Distribution

      Endemic to Puerto Rico, known only from the area around Las Tetas de Cayey in the southwestern part of the island in upland forests, from 200 to 800 m.

    • Provided by: [C]
      •   Bibliography

        • 1 Dunal, W. ex Dunal, Dunal, Dunal, Dunal, and P. ex Dunal, Prodr. [A. P. de Candolle] 13(1): 186. 1852., 1852.

         Information From

        Global Tree Assessment
        BGCI. 2018. GlobalTreeSearch online database. Botanic Gardens Conservation International. Richmond, U.K. Available at Accessed on 30/11/2018.
        • A Botanic Gardens Conservation International
        PBI Solanum Project. 2017. Solanaceae Source. Jan.31st, 2015.
        • B All Rights Reserved
        • C
        • D
        • E CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
        World Flora Online consortium
        World Flora Online Data. 2018.
        • F CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).