Solanum mauritianum Scop.
  • "Scop., Delic. Fl. Faun. Insubr. 3: 16. 1788., 1788."


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Solanum mauritianum Scop. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0001029408. Accessed on: 04 Jul 2020'

General Information

Shrubs or small trees 2-12 m high, unarmed. Trunks to ca. 20 cm in diameter; bark of older stems gray to pale brown, the young branches terete, whitish to yellowish velutinous or lanate, the indument persistent, the hairs mixed sessile, short-, and partly to mostly long- and thin-stalked, porrect-stellate, multangulate, echinoid, dendritic-multangulate, and dendritic-echinoid.
Sympodial units plurifoliate, axillary leaves present or lacking, ovate to broadly elliptic, often well developed.
Leaves simple, the blades usually 11-31 x 4-14 cm, ca. 2.2-3.5 (-4.5) times as long as wide, elliptic to subovate, rather thick-textured, pale to dark green, velutinous adaxially, the hairs touching to densely overlapping, mixed sessile and mostly short- and thick-stalked, porrect-stellate, and few-rayed multangulate, whitish to yellowish tomentose abaxially, the hairs sessile and in part long-stalked, porrect-stellate and multangulate; unarmed; main lateral veins 7-12 on each side of midvein; base acute, cuneate, or if short-attenuate, the blades decurrent only slightly and only at the top of petiole; margin entire; apex long-attenuate; petioles 1-8 cm, ca. 1/10 to 1/4 the length of the blades, velutinous to lanate, the hairs short- to very long-stalked, porrect-stellate, multangulate, and echinoid.
Inflorescences 5-24 cm, pseudo-terminal, becoming lateral due to continued growth of stem, 3-5 times branched, with ca. 20-100 flowers, all flowers perfect, the axes unarmed, velutinous to lanate, the hairs mixed sessile, short- to very long- and thin-stalked, porrect-stellate, multangulate, and sometimes echinoid; peduncle 4-20 cm, 2.5-7 mm thick; rachis 0.5-2.5 cm; pedicels 2-5 mm long in flower and fruit, spaced 0.3-5 mm apart, articulated at the base.
Flower buds 5-6 mm long at anthesis, oblong, orbicular, or turbinate; corolla tomentose in bud, the hairs mixed sessile, short- and long-stalked, porrect-stellate and multangulate; calyx lobe sutures obscured by tomentum. Flowers homostylous, 5-merous. Calyx 4-7.5 mm long, lobed 1/2-3/4 way to the base, subcampanulate to stelliform, relatively thick, rarely faintly ribbed, the tube 2-4 mm, the lobes 2-4 x 1.6-2.8 mm in flower, acute to lanceolate, tomentose to lanate abaxially, the hairs mixed sessile and mostly short- to long- and thick-stalked, porrect-stellate, and multangulate to nearly echinoid, pubescent on distal 1/4 to 1/2 of lobes adaxially, the hairs sessile, porrect-stellate and multangulate; fruiting calyx slightly accrescent, the lobes 3.5-5 x 1.8-3.5 mm. Corolla 1.1-1.5 cm in diameter, ca. 7-10.5 mm long, barely exserted from calyx at anthesis, rotate-stellate, chartaceous, pale lilac to purplish, rarely white, the tube 1.5-3 mm, the lobes 5-8 x 2-3.5 mm, lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, with some glabrous interpetalar tissue, acute to acuminate at apices, tomentose abaxially, the hairs mixed sessile, short- and long- and thin-stalked, porrect-stellate and multangulate, glabrous adaxially. Stamens with filaments 0.9-1.6 mm long, inserted on corolla tube ca. 1-1.5 mm above the base, glabrous; anthers 2.2-3.7 x 0.7-1.2 mm, oblong, blunt-tipped, yellow, free, glabrous, dehiscing by large introrse apical-lateral pores that extend into longitudinal slits with age. Ovary conical, tomentose, the hairs mostly sessile and some short-stalked, multangulate and echinoid, many with long rays directed toward apex; style 5-6.5 x 0.2-0.3 mm, terete, exserted from stamens, glabrous to moderately pubescent 1/2 to 2/3 way from the base, the hairs sessile or very short-stalked, multangulate; stigma clavate or capitate.
Fruit a fleshy berry, 0.9-1.3 cm in diameter, globose, obtuse at apex, yellow when ripe, the tomentum persistent, with hairs mostly sessile and some short-stalked, multangulate and echinoid, some near apex with long rays directed distally.
Seeds 1.7-2.4 x 1.4-1.9 mm, mostly reniform, deltoid or suborbicular, yellowish brown, the testa honeycombed reticulate-punctate.

  • Provided by: [G].SolanaceaeSource.org
    • Diagnostic Description

      Unarmed shrub or small tree; leaves whitish, felty tomentose with fine hairs, ± entire, with conspicuous pseudostipules. Poisonous and irritant.

    • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
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      Morphology

      Blue-purple flowers.

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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      A densely stellate-tomentose tree or shrub up to 20 ft. high

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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      • 1
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      Stamen filaments 0.5–1 mm long; anthers 2.5–3 mm long, narrowly ellipsoid, emarginate at both ends.

    • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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      Corolla blue to purple or mauve with a pale “star” at the base, stelliform or saucer-shaped, 12–18 mm across, tomentose outside but less densely than the calyx; lobes 4–6 × 3–5.5 mm, ovate to triangular or lanceolate, ± acute.

    • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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      • 4
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      Calyx 5–7 mm long, slightly accrescent, deeply divided, densely felty-pubescent to floccose-tomentose; tube campanulate; lobes 2–4.5 × 2–3 mm, ovate-triangular to ovate-lanceolate or oblong-elliptic, acute or obtuse; in fruit enlarged to 6 × 4 mm.

    • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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      • 4
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      Cymes terminal, becoming lateral, stout, dichotomously branched, corymbiform or ± paniculiform, 6.5–12 cm across, ± condensed, many-flowered; peduncle 8–18 cm long, thick, densely felty pubescent; pedicels 2–5 mm long.

    • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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      • 4
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      Leaves solitary; petiole 1–5.5 cm long, usually with 1–2 sessile, obliquely ovate-falcate, rounded, auricle-like, leafy, discolorous pseudostipules 1.3–4 × 0.9–2.5 cm at the base; lamina membranous or chartaceous, 4.5–29.5 × 1.5–13 cm, elliptic to ovate-lanceolate, sometimes ± oblong, base rounded to cuneate, unequally decurrent into the petiole, apex rather obtuse, usually long-acuminate, entire or sub-undulate, velvety pubescent above, distinctly paler, whitish felty with denser tomentum beneath.

    • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 4
      • ]. 

      Seeds pale yellow to golden-brown, 2–2.2 × 1.5–1.8 mm, reniform, lenticular or ovate in outline, minutely reticulate.

    • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 4
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      Fruit dull yellowish when ripe, sub-shining, 9–12 mm in diameter, ± globose, densely stellate-pubescent or tomentose, becoming subglabrous with age, poisonous, with 2 sub-apical, irregularly flattened sclerotic granules.

    • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 4
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      Ovary c. 1 mm in diameter, subglobose, tomentose; style 5–6 mm long, exceeding the stamens, ± straight, stellate-pubescent on the lower half to two-thirds.

    • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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      • 4
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      Branches thickly covered with white felty hairs, subglabrous with age.

    • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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      • 4
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      Large shrub or small tree to 4.5(5) m high, evergreen, foetid, unarmed; hairs stellate, sessile to long stalked, sometimes bearing a long central ray, and also a few simple, multicellular hairs, loose and floccose on new growth; tiny glandular hairs also present.

    • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 4
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      Large shrub or small tree to 4.5(5) m high, evergreen, foetid, unarmed; hairs stellate, sessile to long stalked, sometimes bearing a long central ray, and also a few simple, multicellular hairs, loose and floccose on new growth; tiny glandular hairs also present. Branches thickly covered with white felty hairs, subglabrous with age. Leaves solitary; petiole 1-5.5 cm long, usually with 1-2 sessile, obliquely ovate-falcate, rounded, auricle-like, leafy, discolorous pseudostipules 1.3-4 x 0.9-2.5 cm at the base; lamina membranous or chartaceous, 4.5-29.5 x 1.5-13 cm, elliptic to ovate-lanceolate, sometimes ± oblong, base rounded to cuneate, unequally decurrent into the petiole, apex rather obtuse, usually long-acuminate, entire or sub-undulate, velvety pubescent above, distinctly paler, whitish felty with denser tomentum beneath. Cymes terminal, becoming lateral, stout, dichotomously branched, corymbiform or ± paniculiform, 6.5-12 cm across, ± condensed, many-flowered; peduncle 8-18 cm long, thick, densely felty pubescent; pedicels 2-5 mm long. Calyx 5-7 mm long, slightly accrescent, deeply divided, densely felty-pubescent to floccose-tomentose; tube campanulate; lobes 2-4.5 x 2-3 mm, ovate-triangular to ovate-lanceolate or oblong-elliptic, acute or obtuse; in fruit enlarged to 6 x 4 mm. Corolla blue to purple or mauve with a pale “star” at the base, stelliform or saucer-shaped, 12-18 mm across, tomentose outside but less densely than the calyx; lobes 4-6 x 3-5.5 mm, ovate to triangular or lanceolate, ± acute. Stamen filaments 0.5-1 mm long; anthers 2.5-3 mm long, narrowly ellipsoid, emarginate at both ends. Ovary c. 1 mm in diameter, subglobose, tomentose; style 5-6 mm long, exceeding the stamens, ± straight, stellate-pubescent on the lower half to two-thirds. Fruit dull yellowish when ripe, sub-shining, 9-12 mm in diameter, ± globose, densely stellate-pubescent or tomentose, becoming subglabrous with age, poisonous, with 2 sub-apical, irregularly flattened sclerotic granules. Seeds pale yellow to golden-brown, 2-2.2 x 1.5-1.8 mm, reniform, lenticular or ovate in outline, minutely reticulate.

    • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
      • Source: [
      • 6
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      Small tree or shrub, up to 5 m high, unarmed. Leaves entire, densely stellate-floccose beneath, velvety stellate-pubescent above. Inflorescence terminal. Corolla 12 mm in diameter. Fruit yellowish. Flowers violet or purple.

    • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
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      Shrub or small tree, up to 4 m high; stems white-felty. Spines absent. Leaves petiolate; blade elliptic to narrowly obovate, up to 250 x 100 mm, apex acute to acuminate, base rounded, margins entire, grey-green, upper surface velvety, lower white-felty. Flowers: in terminal clusters, stout, many-flowered; corolla purple, ± 10 mm in diameter. Fruit a dull yellow berry, ± 10-15 mm in diameter.

    • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
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      • 8
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      Whitish felted, small tree to 5 m. Leaves ovate to elliptic, discolorous, to 25 cm long. Flowers crowded in terminal corymbs, purple, to 10 mm diam. Berries yellow, 10 mm diam., velvety.

    • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
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      Cytology

      Chromosome number: 2n=24.

    • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 4
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      Habitat

      Invades forest margins, plantations, savanna, roadsides, watercourses, urban open spaces.

    • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
      • Source: [
      • 6
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      Weed of forests and other disturbed places.

    • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
      • Source: [
      • 7
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      Dry Grassland; Mesic Grassland. Forest margins, disturbed places, along watercourses, in bush clumps.

    • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
      • Source: [
      • 8
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      Weed of disturbed places, scrub and forests.

    • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
      • Source: [
      • 9
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      Distribution

      Solanum mauritianum is a native of Uruguay and southeastern Brazil, but now it is introduced into tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. It was possibly first introduced to Africa, Madagascar, Mauritius, and India by way of the Portuguese trade route, Manila-São Paulo-Capetown-Goa, beginning in the early 16th century. A species of disturbed forest openings, roadsides, or field borders, S. mauritianum is found from sea level to 2000 m. It may occur sporadically or in large thickets and has become a troublesome weed in some areas of Australia and South Africa. Its range is spreading, and it is targeted for chemical and biological control in some areas where it has become a noxious pest.

    • Provided by: [G].SolanaceaeSource.org
      • Originally South America, now widespread, naturalized and weedy in many warm countries, also cultivated. South Africa: Limpopo, Gauteng, Mpumalanga, KwaZulu-Natal, Western Cape, Eastern Cape.

      • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
        • Source: [
        • 6
        • ]. 

        Native to South America.

      • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
        • Source: [
        • 7
        • ]. 

        Native to South America.

      • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
        • Source: [
        • 8
        • ]. 

        S American weed.

      • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
        • Source: [
        • 9
        • ]. 

        Distribution Map

         
        • Native distribution
        Specimens
        Found in
        • Southern America Brazil Paraní
        • Rio Grande do Sul
        • Santa Catarina
        • Espirito Santo
        • Minas Gerais
        • Rio de Janeiro
        • São Paulo

          Bibliography

        • 1 Solanaceae, H. heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963
        • 2 Bitter in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 54: 491 (1917).
        • 3 Delic. Fl. et Faun. Insubr. 3: 16 (1788)
        • 4 Solanaceae, A.E. Gonçalves. Flora Zambesiaca 8:4. 2005
        • 5 Scop., “Delic. Fl. Faun. Insubr. 3: 16. 1788.”, 1788.
        • 6 Gonçalves, AE. 2005. 119. Solanaceae. Fl. Zambes. 8(4): 1 - 124. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London.
        • 7 Herman, PPJ; Retief, E. 1997. Plants of thenorthern provinces of South Africa: keys and diagnostic characters. Strelitzia 6: 1 - 681. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
        • 8 Retief, E; Meyer, NL. 2017. Solanaceae: Solanum L. In: E Retief & NL Meyer (eds), Plants of the Free State: Inventory and identification guide. Strelitzia 38: 801 - 806. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.
        • 9 Welman, WG. 2012. Solanaceae: Solanum L. 765 - 766. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

         Information From

        e-Flora of South Africa
        e-Flora of South Africa. v1.21. 2018. South African National Biodiversity Institute. http://ipt.sanbi.org.za/iptsanbi/resource?r=flora_descriptions&v=1.21
        • A All Rights Reserved
        Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
        http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br
        Brazil Flora G (2014): Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020. v393.147. Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro. Dataset/Checklist. doi:10.15468/1mtkaw
        • B Group Brazil Flora, REFLORA Program
        Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
        https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
        http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
        • C
        Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
        https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
        http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
        • D The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
        Global Tree Assessment
        http://www.bgci.org/
        BGCI. 2018. GlobalTreeSearch online database. Botanic Gardens Conservation International. Richmond, U.K. Available at www.bgci.org. Accessed on 30/11/2018.
        • E Botanic Gardens Conservation International
        SolanaceaeSource.org
        http://solanaceaesource.org/
        PBI Solanum Project. 2017. Solanaceae Source. Jan.31st, 2015. http://www.solanaceaesource.org/.
        • F All Rights Reserved
        • G
        • H Solanaceaesource.org
        • I CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
        World Flora Online consortium
        http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
        World Flora Online Data. 2018.
        • J CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).