Solanum nigrum L.
  • "L. et al., Sp. Pl. 186. 1753., 1753."


This taxon is accepted by SolanaceaeSource.org

General Information

"Branching annual, 1.5–6 dm, glabrous, or somewhat strigose or incurved-puberulent especially above; lvs petiolate; ovate to deltoid, irregularly blunt-toothed or subentire, 2–8 × 1–5.5 cm; peduncles numerous, ascending, to 3 cm, the pedicels closely clustered (forming an umbelliform infl), mostly deflexed at least in fr; mature cal 2–3 mm, the lobes often unequal, sometimes reflexed; cor white or faintly bluish, 5–10 mm wide; frs globose, black, 8 mm, poisonous at least when young, many-seeded and often with 1–10 subglobose concretions to half as long as the seeds; polyploid series based on x=12. A cosmopolitan weed of disturbed habitats, highly diversified, but not yet satisfactorily resolved into discrete taxa, in spite of many attempts. The native N. Amer. plants, as here described, are all diploid, so far as known; the oldest name for these at the specific level may be S. ptychanthum Dunal (S. americanum Mill., probably misapplied). At the varietal level the name would be S. nigrum var. virginicum L. Typical European S. nigrum is only casual with us, mainly about our large Atlantic ports. It is hexaploid and more pubescent (the hairs short, ± spreading and somewhat viscid), with a more nearly racemiform (but still compact) infl."

  • Provided by: [C].New York Botanical Garden
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    • 7
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    Diagnostic Description

    Inflorescence 3-10-flowered. Corolla 8-18 mm across. Berries dull. Peduncles erecto-patent, 14-28 mm long. Pedicels recurved, shorter than peduncles.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 8
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    Morphology

    A weed 1-2 ft. or more high, sometimes cultivated

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    • 1
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    Small white flowers

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    • 1
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    Berries 1/4-3/4 in. diam.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    • 1
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    Stamen filaments 0.3–1.5 mm long; anthers 1.5–2.5(2.8) mm long, oblong.

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
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    Calyx 1.2–2.5 mm long, campanulate, in fruit elongated to 3.5 mm; lobes 0.3–1.2 × 0.3–1.2 mm, obovate, semi-elliptic or ovate to ± triangular, rounded to acute, sparsely pubescent with more numerous hairs towards the apex outside, in fruit enlarged to 3 × 2 mm, appressed or scarcely reflexed.

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    • 5
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    Corolla white, cream or yellowish, with or without a conspicuous yellow-green eye, rarely flushed with purple or pale blue, (4)5–7(9) mm across, rotate or stelliform; lobes 1.5–4 × 0.8–2.3 mm, oblong or ovate to lanceolate, rarely linear, ± acute, puberulous outside.

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
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    Leaves solitary or sometimes paired; petiole 0.3–6.5 cm long, ± narrowly winged distally; lamina 2–14 × 0.7–7.3 cm, elliptic to ovate-lanceolate or ovate, base sub-truncate or rounded to cuneate, oblique, ± decurrent into the petiole, apex acute or obtuse, ± acuminate, entire to sinuate-dentate, both surfaces ± pubescent, with more numerous hairs along the veins and towards the margins, glabrescent.

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
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    Cymes lateral, unbranched, lax and often extended, (3)5–10-flowered; peduncle 0.3–2 cm long, slender, erect or ascending, in fruit occasionally elongated a little, ascending to deflexed; pedicels 3–8.5 mm long, slender, decurved to ascending, in fruit elongated to 12 mm, deflexed.

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    • 5
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    Erect or widely spreading annual to short-lived perennial, sometimes forming dense clumps up to 2 m across and 1.5 m high, (5)25–70(150) cm tall, sometimes flushed with purple, pubescent to villous with simple, curved, usually appressed, eglandular or glandular hairs, glabrescent.

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
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    Branches ± angular to narrowly winged, the edges smooth or with widely spaced short teeth or prickle-like hairs.

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
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    Ovary c. 1 mm in diameter, ± globose to ellipsoid, glabrous; style 2–4.5 mm long, straight or sigmoidal, the stigma level with the tip of the anthers or protruding by up to 2 mm.

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    • 5
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    Fruits often dull, black or purplish-black to yellow-green, opaque, 6–10 mm in diameter, usually broadly ovoid, smooth, usually without sclerotic granules, glabrous, edible when mature.

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
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    Seeds with light bone-colour and sometimes flushed with purple, 1.7–2.4 mm long, ± obovate in outline, minutely pitted all over.

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
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    Plants subglabrous to villous annuals up to 70 cm high, covered with simple multicellular hairs with glandular or eglandular heads. Stems decumbent to erect. Leaves ovate, ovate-lanceolate, ovate-rhombic to lanceolate, 2.5-7.0 cm long x 2.0-4.5(6.0) cm broad, margins entire to sinuate-dentate. Inflorescences simple, lax and often extended cymes, (3)5 to 10-flowered; peduncles (8)14-28 mm fruiting when usually erecto-patent; pedicels much shorter, recurved in fruit. Calyces 1.2-2.5 mm long, slightly accrescent, deflexed or adhering to base of mature berry, sepals usually ovate. Corollas stellate, white with translucent basal star, (4)5-7(9) mm radius, usually 1.5-3 times as long as calyx. Anthers yellow, 1.5-2.5(2.8) mm long. Styles 2.8-3.5(4.5) mm long, not exserted beyond anthers. Berries usually broadly ovoid, dull purple to blackish or yellowish-green, 6-10 mm broad, remaining on plants or falling from calyces when ripe. Seeds 1.7-2.4 mm long, (15)26-60(96) per berry. Sclerotic granules absent.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
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    • 8
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    Annual or biennial herb, up to 1 m high, unarmed. Leaves sinuate-dentate or rarely entire, pubescent with simple hairs. Flowers in umbellate cymes. Corolla 10-14 mm in diameter. Fruit black, rarely red or yellow. Flowers white.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
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    • 9
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    Annual or biennial herb, up to 0.85 m high. Spines absent. Leaves petiolate; blade ± broadly elliptic to ovate, ± 65 x 40 mm, apex acute, base cuneate, margins sinuate-dentate or entire, ± pubescent with simple hairs. Flowers: in few-flowered, umbellate cymes, randomly arranged on stem; corolla 10-14 mm in diameter, white; Oct.-Jul. Fruit a black, rarely red or yellow berry, 6-7 mm in diameter.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
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    • 10
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    Glabrous to thinly hairy annual to 1 m. Leaves soft, ovate-lanceolate, often toothed, to 10 cm long. Flowers 5-10 in clusters, white, to 5 mm diam. Berries black, to 10 mm diam.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
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    Erect, branched annual, up to 0.85 m tall. Leaves petiolate, lanceolate to elliptical, up to 120 mm long, entire to serrate, ± glabrous to hairy. Flowers few, in ± drooping umbels, 10-14 mm diam., white, sepals deflexed or adhering to base of mature berry. Ripe berries dull purple to blackish, broadly ovoid, 6-10 mm in diam., held in drooping clusters from outspread peduncles, edible (as jam).

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
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    • 12
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    Cytology

    Chromosome number: 2n=72.

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
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    Habitat

    Wide variety of vegetation types, also secondary vegetation. Weedy in disturbed places.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
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    • 8
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    Weed of open, fairly dry areas.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Dry Grassland; Dwarf Karroid Shrubland. Weed of open, fairly dry areas.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 10
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    Sheltered sites and disturbed places.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 11
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    Sandy, clay or loam soil in cool, shady, places, also weedy.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 12
    • ]. 

    Distribution

    Originally perhaps Eurasia and Africa. Now also naturalized and weedy in temperate and tropical North America, Australia, New Zealand. Common in all provinces in South Africa.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Native to Europe.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Native to Europe.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Cape Peninsula to Eurasia.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Widespread and common in southern and tropical Africa, indigenous to Eurasia, possibly also to Africa.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 12
    • ]. 

    Homotypic Synonyms

    Heterotypic Synonyms

    Synonyms

      Bibliography

    • 1 Solanaceae, H. heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963
    • 2 Exell in Cat. S. Tomé 253.
    • 3 "F.T.A. 4, 2: 218"
    • 4 Sp. Pl. 186 (1753) (incl. vars.)
    • 5 Solanaceae, A.E. Gonçalves. Flora Zambesiaca 8:4. 2005
    • 6 L. et al., Sp. Pl. 186. 1753., 1753.
    • 7 "Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp."
    • 8 Edmonds, JM; Chweya, JA. 1997. Black nightshades, Solanum nigrum L. and related species. Promoting the conservation and use of underutilized and neglected crops 15: 1 - 112. IPK/IPGRI, Gatersleben/Rome. The original publication is available at Bioversity InternationalÆs website at: http://www.bioversityinternational.org/index.php?id=244&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=321&cHash=63cf21f6fb21f93a280b4a9bb8267276.
    • 9 Herman, PPJ; Retief, E. 1997. Plants of thenorthern provinces of South Africa: keys and diagnostic characters. Strelitzia 6: 1 - 681. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • 10 Retief, E; Meyer, NL. 2017. Solanaceae: Solanum L. In: E Retief & NL Meyer (eds), Plants of the Free State: Inventory and identification guide. Strelitzia 38: 801 - 806. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.
    • 11 Welman, WG. 2012. Solanaceae: Solanum L. 765 - 766. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.
    • 12 Welman, WG. 2013. Solanaceae: Solanum. 481 - 482. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

     Information From

    e-Flora of South Africa
    e-Flora of South Africa. v1.21. 2018. South African National Biodiversity Institute. http://ipt.sanbi.org.za/iptsanbi/resource?r=flora_descriptions&v=1.21
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    SolanaceaeSource.org
    http://solanaceaesource.org/
    PBI Solanum Project. 2017. Solanaceae Source. Jan.31st, 2015. http://www.solanaceaesource.org/.
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