Plants small to medium-sized. Rhizome erect, creeping, or ascending, blackish brown, nodes and roots with few to numerous long yellowish brown trichomes or glabrous. Aerial stem perennial, monomorphic, green, 20-60 cm tall, 1-7 mm in diam. at middle, lower portion of main stem often branched, tufted; internodes 2-10 cm; young whorled branches conspicuous or inconspicuous; main stem 5-20-ridged, ridges arc-shaped abaxially, with a row of tubercles or small light brown cross grains; sheath tubes narrow, up to 1 cm, lower portion grayish green, upper portion usually grayish brown; sheath teeth 5-22, grayish white to light or blackish brown, deltoid, base flat or arc-shaped, margin (sometimes upper part) membranous, caducous or persistent, with conspicuous or inconspicuous stomatal bands. Lateral branches hard, terete, 5-12-ridged; ridge glabrous or with 1 row of tubercles or small pale cross grains; sheath teeth 5-10, upper portion brown, lanceolate, leathery but membranous at margin, usually persistent. Strobilus shortly clavate or ellipsoid, 0.5-2.5 cm, 0.4-0.7 cm in diam. at middle, apex with small acute tip, sessile. 2n = 216.
Cones up to 1.8 x 0.5 cm., with a blunt conical apex; sporangiophores 1–1.5 mm. in diam.
Branches produced at the nodes up to 14 in each whorl, up to 13 cm. long, c. 1–1.5 mm. in diam.
Subterranean stems black, up to 3 mm. in diam., horizontal to erect, bearing roots and aerial stems up to 2 m. high with primary axis erect up to 5 mm. in diam., conspicuously longitudinally ribbed, with whorls of up to 14 scale leaves up to 1.1 cm. long, fused for most of their length, ending in free acuminate teeth up to 2 mm. long, often turning black with age, the apical portions frequently broken off.
Fertile und sterile Stängel gleich gestaltet, 30–90 cm hoch und 2–8 mm dick, mit langen Seitentrieben. Scheiden einfarbig oder oben bräunlich, mit 8–20 Zähnen, diese mit pfriemenförmiger, weisser, zuletzt abfallender Spitze. Sporan
Subterranean stems horizontal to erect, black, bearing roots. Aerial stems up to 2 m high, conspicuously ribbed. Leaves reduced to a many-toothed, short sheath. Sporangiophores in compact strobili, terminal on stems, sporangia numerous.
Plants terrestrial. Rhizome subterranean, jointed, 3-6 mm in diameter, roots borne in whorls at the nodes. Stems erect, to 1.5 m tall, to 5 mm in diameter, branches borne in whorls at the nodes, up to 14 in each whorl, to 130 mm long, to 1.5 mm in diameter, main stem and branches ridged, bearing silicaceous tubercules or bands, with regular rows of paracytic sunken stomata in the sulci, in cross section with a prominent central canal and small vallecular (under sinuses) and carinal (under ridges) canals. Leaves membranous to thinly chartaceous, each with a single central vein, whorled, fused into a nodal sheath, to 11 mm long, ending in acuminate teeth, to 2 mm long, turning black with age, margins hyaline, estomate. Sporangia elongate, thin-walled, dehiscing longitudinally, borne on stalked, peltate sporangiophores forming a strobilus terminally on a main stem or branch, to 18 mm long, to 5 mm in diameter, each sporangiophore bears 6-9 sporangia. Spores spheroidal, chlorophyllose, with 4 spathulate hygroscopic elaters.
Perennial with underground rhizome. Aerial stems erect and hollow forming distinct internodes, ribbed, leaves reduced to a short, papery sheath of fused teeth at each node. Strobili terminal on branches.
Perennial with branched underground rhizome. Aerial stems erect, hollow, ribbed, branches borne in whorls at nodes, leaves fused, forming a reduced papery whorl at each node. Strobili terminal on branches.
Subterranean stems horizontal to erect, black, up to 8 mm in diameter, bearing roots. Aerial stems up to 2 m high with primary axis erect, conspicuously longitudinally ribbed, up to 5 mm in diameter with whorls of up to 14 scale leaves up to 11 mm long, fused for most of their length, ending in free acuminate teeth up to 2 mm long, often turning black with age, apical portions frequently broken off. Branches produced at nodes, up to 14 in each whorl, up to 130 x 1-1.5 mm. Strobili up to 23 x 8 mm, with a blunt conical apex; sporangiophores 1-1.5 mm in diameter.
10-70 cm boyunda çokyıllık otsu bitkiler. Rizomlar sürünücü, dik veya yükselici, siyah veya koyu kahverengi, tüysüz veya tüylü, tüyler sarımsı kahverengi. Ana gövde çokyıllık, tek biçimli, 0,3- 0,7 cm çapında, yeşil, 8-20 oluklu; kın yeşil, 0,4-1 cm uzunluğunda, uçta belirgin siyah bantlı; dişler gövdedeki oluk sayısı kadar, üç-köşeli, sivri, siyah, 1 omurgalı, kenarları ince zarımsı, kalıcı. Yan gövdeler dallanmamış, yeşil, 3-15 cm uzunluğunda, 4-8 oluklu. Ana gövdedeki öz boşluğu gövdenin 2/3’ü kadar. Kozalak kahverengi, yeşil gövdenin ucunda tek, tersyumurtamsı veya eliptik, 0,5-2,5 × 0,4-0,7 cm.
Open woodland, rock crevices, sandy soil along rivers and on gravel in shallowly waterlogged places.
Terrestrial, generally in humid sand, gravel, mud or silt on floodplains and in stream and riverbeds. Often also invasive in cultivated fields. Exposed or in partial shade.
The species is widespread in the eastern parts of west central tropical Africa, east and south tropical Africa, south tropical and southern Africa, Macaronesia, the western Indian Ocean region, Egypt, southern and central Europe and Asia, except Malaysia.
Cape Infanta and George to W Africa, Madagascar.
Mostly along the lower Gariep Valley, Cape Infanta to W Africa and Madagascar.
Southern South West Africa/Namibia, Botswana, Cape Province, Transkei, Natal, Lesotho, Orange Free State, Swaziland, Transvaal, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Angola, Malawi, Zambia, Tanzania, Uganda, Ethiopia, Somalia, Sudan, Morocco, as well as Cape Verde Islands, Canary Islands, Madagascar, Mauritius and Reunion.