Rhizome erect, set with dark brown rhizome scales. Sori lateral on ultimate segments, more than twice as long as broad. Lamina not expanded at sorus, narrowly elliptic-acute, up to 450 x 130 mm, deeply 3- or 4-pinnatifid.
Plants terrestrial, epilithic or epiphytic. Rhizome erect to suberect, to 40 mm long, to 5 mm in diameter, set with roots, crowded persistent stipe bases and scales, scales thinly crustaceous, atrocastaneous, matt, clathrate, sessile, lanceolate to subulate, cordate to cordate-imbricate, margins regularly set with short filiform outgrowths, pluricellular, uniseriate, apex terminates in an oblong thin-walled cell, to 19 mm long, to 4.5 mm wide. Fronds crowded, caespitose, suberect to arching, to 570 mm long; stipe firm, proximally castaneous to black, green higher up, firm, sulcate, centrally raised, to 200 mm long, to 2.5 mm in diameter, initially sparsely scaled, glabrous later, scales thinly crustaceous, atrocastaneous to black, clathrate, sessile, subulate, cordate to cordate-imbricate, basally with several filiform outgrowths terminating in an enlarged broadly elliptic thin-walled cell, entire towards the apex, apex terminates in an enlarged broadly elliptic thin-walled cell, to 7 mm long, to 1 mm wide; lamina anadromous, to 3-pinnate, narrow elliptic, to 400 mm long, to 120 mm wide, with up to 23 pinna pairs; rachis firm, green, sulcate, centrally ridged, sparsely scaled, scales similar to, but smaller than, those on the stipe; pinnae petiolate, petiole to 3 mm long, opposite to alternate, basally widely spaced, more closely spaced towards the apex and often slightly overlapping, firmly herbaceous to coriaceous, lanceolate to ovate, to 80 mm long, to 40 mm wide, with up to 10 pinnule pairs; pinna-rachis sulcate, centrally ridged, ridge not confluent with that of the rachis, sparsely scaled, scales similar to, but smaller than, those on the rachis, to 1.5 mm long; pinnules opposite to alternate, flabellate, rhomboid, elliptic or linear, the larger divided into oblong lobes, lobes entire, to 7 mm long, to 2 mm wide, glabrous adaxially, abaxially sparsely set with scales similar to those on the pinna-rachis. Venation anadromous, evident, raised adaxially, pinnately branched, ending in the lobes near the margin. Sori linear, 1 per lobe, medial to supramedial, to 2 mm long; indusium membranous, linear, entire, extending from the vein almost to the margin, to 2 mm long, to 0.6 mm wide; sporangium long-stalked, uniseriate, 3-seriate below capsule, capsule broadly elliptic in lateral view, with (17-)19 indurated annulus cells, epistomium 2(-3)-celled, hypostomium 4-celled. Spores 64 per sporangium, brown, elliptic, monolete, perispore folded to form narrow reticulate ridges, erose, areolae between the ridges with a fine reticulate meshwork, (38-)42.6(-48) x (24-)26.9(-30) µm.
Perennial with short, erect rhizome. Fronds caespitose, to 35 cm, stipe glabrous at maturity, lamina coriaceous, narrowly elliptic, 3- or 4-pinnatifid, pinnae to 19 pairs, ultimate lobes oblanceolate, sparsely scaled beneath. Sori 1 per lobe, pouch-like, indusium entire.
Rhizome erect, c. 6 mm in diameter, set with lanceolate, dark brown, somewhat fimbriate, attenuate rhizome-scales up to 4 mm long with paler borders. Fronds tufted, thinly to thickly coriaceous, not gemmiferous; stipe greenish to pale brown when dry, becoming glabrous at maturity; lamina narrowly elliptic-acute, up to 450 x 130 mm, deeply 3- to 4-pinnatifid; pinnae in up to 19 pairs, unequally deltate to lanceolate, progressively more divided from apex to base, base unequally cuneate, acroscopic margin more developed; ultimate lobes oblanceolate to oblong to obovate, acute, upper surface glabrous, lower surface set with occasional scales c. 1 mm long. Sori one per lobe, borne halfway along length of lobe or more towards apex, c. 2 mm long; indusium membranous, entire, extending from costa almost to margin, c. 0.4 mm broad.
Epiphyte in forest, occasionally terrestrial or lithophytic.
Epilithic or epiphytic, rarely terrestrial, in deep shade in moist or seasonally moist evergreen forests. Not edaphically bound.
Low-level epiphyte or lithophyte in forests, to 400 m.
Widespread in east tropical Africa, the eastern parts of south tropical and southern Africa, and the western Indian Ocean region.