Polystichum sinense (Christ) Christ
  • Bull. Soc. Bot. France: Mem.


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Polystichum sinense (Christ) Christ. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0001123494. Accessed on: 10 Jul 2020'

General Information

Plants summer-green. Rhizome erect, densely covered with lanceolate brown scales. Fronds 20-70 cm; stipe stramineous, 5-34 cm, 2-5 mm in diam. at base, densely scaly; scales brown, ovate, lanceolate, and linear. Lamina bipinnatipartite or rarely bipinnate, narrowly elliptic or lanceolate, 25-58 × 4-14 cm, slightly contracted toward base, acuminate; rachis without proliferous bulbils, stramineous, both surfaces covered with linear brown scales, abaxially mixed with broadly lanceolate to narrowly ovate scales. Pinnae 24-32 pairs, alternate, slightly ascendant, shortly stalked, lanceolate, middle pairs 2.5-7 × 0.6-2 cm, bases oblique and nearly truncate, auriculate acroscopically, pinnatipartite to pinna rachis, apices acuminate. Lobes 7-14 pairs, nearly opposite, slightly ascendant, obliquely ovate or obliquely oblong, 4-12 × 2-5 mm, bases obliquely cuneate and decurrent to pinna rachis, slightly auriculate acroscopically, margins with acute forward-pointing teeth, apices acuminate; both surfaces covered with filiform microscales, microscales on abaxial surface denser; frond texture papery; venation pinnate on lobes, indistinct on both surfaces. Sori in 1 row on each side of midrib of lobe; indusia present, incised.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    Diagnostic Description

    Polystichum wilsonii is separated from P. transvaalense by the slightly shorter and narrower fronds, shorter stipe, a more pronounced reduction and deflexing of the basal pinnae, and in the paleae. Larger paleae in P. wilsonii extend from the stipe to the rachis, are generally complanate at maturity and somewhat polished. The smaller paleae are more rigid with shorter and less divided marginal outgrowths. In P. transvaalense the larger paleae are mostly restricted to the stipe and proximal part of the rachis and become somewhat shrivelled at maturity. The marginal outgrowths on the proximal part of the smaller stipe paleae are also longer, more divided, and more twisted. Polystichum wilsonii, although often present in forests at lower elevations with P. transvaalense, is predominantly a high altitude species occurring in exposed conditions. A natural hybrid between the putative species was described as P. x saltum.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
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    Morphology

    Rhizome erect, set with ferrugineous rhizome scales. Lamina 2-pinnate. Rhachis scales ferrugineous. Basal basiscopic arista of each pinnule folded over upper surface of lamina. Fronds narrowly ovate-lanceolate. Stipe and rhachis set with numerous ovate scales, aristae ±1 mm long.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
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    Terrestrial or epilithic. Rhizome erect to suberect, with reddish brown scales. Fronds tufted, arching, 2-pinnate, basal pinnae slightly reduced, lamina lanceolate-linear, 160-520 x 40150 mm, subglabrous adaxially, with twisted, hair-like scales abaxially; pinnule margins aristate, basal basiscopic arista folded over adaxial surface; rachis and straw-coloured stipe with dense hair-like scales and pale, ovate scales at almost right angles. Sporangia in circular sori with membranous, erose indusium, up to 1 mm in diameter.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
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    Plants terrestrial or epilithic. Rhizome short, to 130 mm long, erect to suberect, to 10 mm in diameter, rarely branched, set with roots, crowded, persistent stipe bases, and paleµ; paleµ broadly attached, castaneous, chartaceous, narrowly linear, the margins with small, widely spaced cellular outgrowths, the apex mostly terminating in an acicular cell, rarely in a small thin-walled cell, to 12 x 1 mm. Fronds cµspitose, 8-12 per plant, suberect to arching, to 1.05 m long; stipe proximally castaneous, stramineous distally, adaxially sulcate, to 450 mm long x 5 mm in diameter, sparsely to densely paleated; larger paleµ broadly attached, often slightly bullate, spreading, extending to the rachis, concolorous or bicolorous, chartaceous to crustaceous, broadly ovate-acuminate to ovate-acuminate, cordate to cordate-imbricate, the margins widely to closely fimbriate, fimbriµ generally straight, the apex entire, terminating in an acicular cell, to 23 x 9 mm; smaller paleµ apically or basally directed, stramineous, chartaceous, narrowly triangular to subulate, short-stalked, often somewhat auricled, the margins proximally with long straight, angular or curved outgrowths, distally with few widely spaced, short or long marginal outgrowths, the apex entire, terminating in an acicular cell, to 13 x 7 mm: lamina 2-pinnate, with up to 29 free pinna pairs, herbaceous to firmly herbaceous, pale to dark green adaxially, paler abaxially, narrowly elliptic, to 625 mm long, the proximal pinnµ reduced, deflexed: rachis stramineous, adaxially sulcate, densely set with paleµ similar to but smaller than those on the stipe, paleµ restricted to the abaxial surface, to 9 x 3 mm: pinnµ 1-pinnate, with up to 12 free pinnule pairs, proximally widely spaced, distally closely spaced and somewhat overlapping, folded ventrally along the rachis (conduplicate), narrowly triangular to oblong-attenuate, the proximal pinnµ to 88 mm long x 20 mm wide: pinna-rachis stramineous, adaxially sulcate, densely paleated; paleµ short-stalked, narrowly ovate to narrowly triangular, the margins proximally with long straight or angular outgrowths, apically with few widely spaced short or long outgrowths, the apex entire, terminating in an acicular cell: pinnules asymmetric, acroscopically auriculate, narrowly trullate to trullate, to 12 mm long, serrate, long-aristate; adaxially with straight or slightly twisted filiform paleµ, simple or proximally with short straight or curved marginal outgrowths, the apex terminating in an acicular cell; abaxially with straight or proximally somewhat twisted, subulate-hastate paleµ, the margins with short straight or angular outgrowths at the base, the apex entire, terminating in an acicular cell. Venation raised. Sori circular, c. 1 mm in diameter, terminal or near terminal on abbreviated vein branches: sporangium with 11-(15)-24 indurated annulus cells; stalk eglandular: indusium stramineous, peltate, circular or reniform, repand to erose, often with small central processes, persistent, the maximum radius 0.51-(0.75)-1.09 mm. Spores 64 per sporangium, brown, the perispore smooth or tuberculate, spiculate, closely perforated, the exospore 32-(41.74)-52 x 24-{30.16)-40 µm.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
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    Perennial with short, suberect rhizome. Fronds suberect to arching, to 1 m long, caespitose, stipe densely scaled, lamina 2-pinnate, ovate-lanceolate, upper pinnae mostly folded back along rachis, pinnules aristate, moderately scaled above, densely scaled beneath. Sori circular, indusium peltate, erose.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
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    Rhizome erect, c. 5 mm in diameter, set with ferrugineous, linear-attenuate, minutely serrulate rhizome-scales c. 7 mm long. Fronds annual, arching; stipe shorter than lamina, darker basally, set with ovate to narrowly ovate-attenuate, pale brown and castaneous-striped, minutely lacerate scales c. 10 x 5 mm and smaller different-sized scales; lamina softly herbaceous, narrowly ovate-lanceolate, up to 380 x 115 mm, basal pinnae reduced; pinnae narrowly and unequally deltate, acute; pinnules with aristae c. 1 mm long, upper surface subglabrous, lower surface set with very narrow twisted pale scales c. 1-3 mm long; venation somewhat obscure ventrally; rhachis set below with spreading, nitid, stramineous to ferrugineous, fimbriate-based scales c. 5 mm long, above with very narrow, somewhat ferrugineous scales c. 3 mm long; secondary rhachises set with smaller similar scales. Indusium ferrugineous, fimbriate-erose, c. 1 mm in diameter.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
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    Habitat

    Damp to marshy, usually rock-sheltered localities.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
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    Mesic Grassland. Vertical rock crevices, rock overhangs and boulder bases in high altitude montane grassland or scrub.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
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    The lithology, climate and vegetation associated with Polystichum wilsonii vary considerably through its range. In the southern Cape P. wilsonii occurs at 1500-2000 m in acidic sandy soils derived from sediments of the Cape Supergroup. These soils support the unique Mesic Mountain Fynbos. This area is the only part of the distribution range of the species that experiences winter rainfall (April-September). In the Drakensberg Polystichum wilsonii is associated with the Clarens Sandstone formation, the Drakensberg Basalt Formation and the intrusive Karoo dolerites. At lower elevations in the Drakensberg (1250-1800 m) the species commonly occurs along streambanks or on rocks in Undifferentiated Afromontane forests and scrub forests confined to sheltered ravines and mountain slopes. These forests are largely associated with the Clarens Sandstone Formation. At higher elevations (>1600-1800 m) the Drakensberg Basalt formation and the intrusive Karoo dolerites are prevalent. These formations support the Themeda-Festuca Alpine veld. Here P. wilsonii occurs among boulders along streams, in dry exposed rock crevices or in wet and shaded rock overhangs. The Ethiopian and Kenyan highlands, Mt. Elgon, Mt. Meru, Mt. Kilimanjaro, Mt. Cameroon, Bioko and the Comoro Islands are all of volcanic origin or consist in part of volcanic deposits. Many of the isolated mountains are still volcanically active today. Also the Kivu Ridge, which is largely composed of Precambrian rocks, has local exposures of volcanic deposits. On all these mountains the vegetation diminishes in structure from the lower slopes to the summit. In tropical Africa Polystichum wilsonii occurs in a wide range of vegetation types. At lower elevations on Mt. Elgon (2550 m) and the Ethiopian highlands (2700 m) it occurs in Undifferentiated Afromontane forests. On the Ethiopian highlands the species also occurs in single-dominant Afromontane forests such as Juniperus procera forests on Mt. Wuchada (2600 m) and Hagenia abyssinica forests in the Bale Mountains. On Mt. Kenya it has been recorded from the Afromontane bamboo zone. On Mt. Kenya (3200 m), Mt. Meru (3300 m), Mt. Elgon (3500 m) and the Bale Mountains (3500 m) it occurs in Afromontane bushland and thicket. Again on the Bale Mountains (3500 m) and on the rim of the caldeira round Lake Wanchi (3650 m) it occurs in Afromontane and Afroalpine shrubland. With an increase in elevation the latter vegetation type is replaced by Afromontane and Afroalpine grassland. Polystichum wilsonii has been recorded from this vegetation type on Mt. Kilimanjaro (3000 m) and the Ethiopian highlands (3900 m). On Mt. Cameroon P. wilsonii has been recorded from 1950 m to 3800 m and on the island of Grande Comore from 1000 m to 1400 m. In both cases the plants were associated with lava flows.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 5
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    Moist, rock shelters, 1300-2100 m.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 6
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    Damp to marshy, usually rock-sheltered localities at 1300-3200 m altitude.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Distribution

    Polystichum wilsonii has a wide distribution ranging from Africa to the Uttar Pradesh mountains in northern India, and to Bhutan, China (Szechuan) and Taiwan (Ilan, Taichung, Hsinchu). In the study area P. wilsonii has a disjunct distribution. In South Africa it occurs on the southern Cape mountains, along the KwaZulu-Natal Drakensberg and into Lesotho, extending along the Free State-KwaZulu-Natal escarpment as far north as the Vryheid District. To the north it occurs in the mountainous areas of Zimbabwe, Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Ethiopia and the Kivu Ridge in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The species is also known from Mt. Cameroon and the island of Bioko, 32 km from the mainland in the Gulf of Guinea. It has furthermore been recorded from Grande Comore c. 300 km from the mainland in the Mozambique channel. Although the higher ground of the Zambezian Region, which includes Zimbabwe and Malawi, supports Afromontane plant communities, it is rare in this region with only one collection known from Zimbabwe.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 5
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    Worcester to Oudtshoorn and tropical Africa to E Asia.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 6
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    South-western Cape Province to the Natal and Transvaal Drakensberg. Also Kenya and Uganda.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

      Bibliography

    • 1 "Polystichum sinense Christ in Flora of China @ efloras.org" eFlora. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA., 2013. Web. Accessed February 2018.
    • 2 Bull. Soc. Bot. France: Mem.
    • 3 Herman, PPJ; Retief, E. 1997. Plants of thenorthern provinces of South Africa: keys and diagnostic characters. Strelitzia 6: 1 - 681. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • 4 Klopper, RR. 2017. Pteridophyta. In: E Retief & NL Meyer (eds), Plants of the Free State: Inventory and identification guide. Strelitzia 38: 114 - 143. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.
    • 5 Roux, JP. 2000. The genus Polystichum (Dryopteridaceae) in Africa. Bull. Nat. Hist. Mus. London, Bot. 30(2): 33 - 79. Permission was granted to SANBI by The Bulletin of Natural History Museum, Natural History Museum London. This material may not be reproduced or transferred to any other publication without written permission from the copyright holder.
    • 6 Roux, JP. 2012. Pteridophytes. 31 - 47. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.
    • 7 Schelpe, EACLE; Anthony, NC. 1986. Pteridophyta. In: O.A. Leistner (ed.). Fl. S. Africa : 1 - 278.

     Information From

    Dryopteridaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    e-Flora of South Africa
    e-Flora of South Africa. v1.21. 2018. South African National Biodiversity Institute. http://ipt.sanbi.org.za/iptsanbi/resource?r=flora_descriptions&v=1.21
    • B All Rights Reserved
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • C Missouri Botanical Garden
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • D CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).