Plants light green or yellowish green. Stems 0.2-15(-25) cm. Leaves obovate to ovate-lanceolate, distal leaves 2-5 mm; margins toothed, sometimes nearly smooth distally; percurrent to rarely short-excurrent. Specialized asexual reproduction absent. Seta (1-)6-15(-30) mm. Capsule exserted, 1-3 mm, globose-pyriform when young, highly variable in shape when old, urceolate to pyriform; neck short, distinct; exothecial cells irregular hexagonal; suboral cells consisting of 5-17 rows of rectangular cells. Spores (24-)46-60(-90) µm, papillose.
5. Physcomitrium pyriforme (Hedw.) Hampe 梨蒴立碗藓 li-shuo li-wan xian Linnaea 11: 80. 1837. Gymnostomum pyriforme Hedw., Sp. Musc. Frond. 38. 1801. Type. Europe. Plants small to medium-sized, 8–15 mm high, yellowish green, in loose tufts. Stems simple, 5–12 mm long. Leaves usually crowded at stem tips, rosulate, 2–5 mm long, often contorted when dry, erect-patent when moist, oblong-ovate to oblong-lanceolate, acuminate to acute at apex; margins plane or slightly broadly incurved above, bluntly serrulate above, bordered by 1–2 rows of narrower or linear cells; costa percurrent or shortly excurrent as a short apiculus; upper and median leaf cells oblong-hexagonal, 25–43 µm × 18–22 µm; basal cells elongate, oblong-rectangular, 50–60 µm × 18–20 µm; basal angular cells usually inflated into 2–3 rows. Autoicous or polygamous. Setae yellowish red, 6–14 mm long; capsules reddish brown, long-pyriform to globose-pyriform, ca. 1.5 mm long, mouth wide, ca. 0.9–1.3 mm in diameter, neck distinctly developed, ca. 0.4–0.5 mm long; opercula not seen; annuli not seen; peristome absent. Calyptrae not seen. Spores spherical, yellowish brown, 24–50 µm in diameter, densely and spinulosely papillose.