1. Diphyscium chiapense D. H. Norris subsp. unipapillosum (Deguchi) T.-Y. Chiang & S.-H. Lin 单疣短颈藓 变种 dan you duan jing xian bian zhong Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 42: 217. 2001. Diphyscium unipapillosum Deguchi, J. Jap. Bot. 59: 97. 1984. Type: Japan. Pref. Kochi, Kamiyashiki, Nakamura-shi, Deguchi 24901 (holotype HIRO; isotype NY). Diphyscium buckii B. C. Tan, Bryologist 93: 429. 1990. Plants small to medium-sized, 5–15 mm high, in clumps or occasionally in scattered tufts. Stems simple or branched; central strand present. Leaves curled when dry, spreading when moist, 3–7 mm × 0.5–1.0 mm, oblong-lanceolate to ligulate or lingulate; apices rounded, rarely acute, mucronate to apiculate; leaf cells bistratose above the base, unistratose at extreme base; median leaf cells rounded quadrate, 4–12 µm in diameter, mammillose or unipapillose; basal cells rectangular, 15–60 µm × 5–13 µm, hyaline, smooth; leaf margins entire below to crenulate above, unistratose; costa percurrent to shortly excurrent, with dorsal and ventral stereid bands, sometimes stereid bands not distinctly differentiated. Axillary hairs 5–18 cells long. Dioicous. Male plants smaller than female plants. Perichaetia terminal on stems or branches. Perichaetial leaves lanceolate with an oblong or ovate base, costa excurrent, smooth or papillose; outer leaves 4–6 mm × 0.4–0.5 mm, margins entire at base, crenulate at apex; inner leaves 3–7 mm × 0.3–0.5 mm, margins entire at base, crenulate or dissected at apex. Setae very short, only to 0.3 mm long; capsules oblong-ovoid, obliquely asymmetric, 3–4 mm × 1–2 mm, abruptly narrowed at base and more or less at mouth; exothecial cells collenchymatous; stomata at mouth of capsules, superficial; annuli well differentiated, consisting of 1–3 rows of thick-walled cells, persistent or deciduous; opercula conic, ca. 0.5 mm long, obtuse; peristome present. Calyptrae cucullate, smooth. Spores spherical, 8–13 µm in diameter, papillose.