Herbs, subshrubs, shrubs, or small trees. Stipules usually caducous; leaf blade usually entire (lobed in A. pictum), palmately veined, base cordate, margin crenate or serrate. Flowers axillary or subterminal, solitary, paired or in small cymes, often aggregated into terminal panicles. Epicalyx absent. Calyx campanulate, lobes 5. Corolla mostly yellow or orange (red in A. roseum), often with dark center, campanulate to wheel-shaped, rarely ± tubular (A. pictum); petals 5, basally connate and adnate to filament tube. Anthers many, clustered at filament tube apex. Ovary (5-)7-20-loculed; ovules 2-9 per carpel; style branches as many as carpels. Fruit a schizocarp, often blackish when mature, subglobose to hemispherical; mericarps (5-)7-20, eventually dehiscent, apex rounded or acute, sometimes 2-awned, pericarp leathery. Seeds reniform, glabrous or slightly pubescent.
Hierbas robustas, sufrútices, hasta arbolitos, glabrescentes o pubescentes, a veces con tricomas glandulares. Hojas elípticas a cordiformes, a veces partidas, generalmente dentadas; pecioladas. Inflorescencias en panículas o racimos, raras veces en umbelas, o las flores solitarias en las axilas; calículo ausente; pétalos amarillos o anaranjados (en Nicaragua), a veces blancos o lilas; estilos 530, estigmas capitados. Frutos esquizocárpicos, carpidios 530, generalmente agudos o acuminados en el ápice, con 36 semillas por carpidio.
Un género con ca 160 especies en las Américas, Africa, Asia y Australia; 6 especies se conocen en Nicaragua.
T. Kearney. A tentative key to the North American species of Abutilon Miller. Leafl. W. Bot. 7: 241254. 1955; P. Fryxell. Mexican species of Abutilon sect. Armata (Malvaceae), including descriptions of three new species. Madroño 23: 320334. 1976.
Subarbustos a árboles pequeños, glabrescentes o pubescentes, la pubescencia a veces víscida. Hojas ovadas a suborbiculares, a veces lobuladas o partidas, de otra forma usualmente crenado-dentadas, sin nectarios fo- liares. Infls. axilares, de 1 fl. solitaria, o aglomeradas en infls. compuestas terminales. Fls. sin calículo; cáliz profundamente lobulado; pétalos (en CR) blancos a amarillos o anaranjados; estilos múltiples, los estigmas ca- pitados. Frs. esquizocárpicos, crateriforme-acostillados, los mericarpos 5 – 25, por lo general agudos o acumi- nados a espinescentes en el ápice (raramente redondeados), dorsalmente dehiscentes; semillas usualmente 3 – 6 por mericarpo, glabras o levemente pubescentes.
Subshrubs, shrubs, or herbs. Stems erect, sometimes trailing (A. parvulum) or procumbent or ascending (A. wrightii), glabrescent or pubescent, sometimes viscid (A. hirtum, A. reventum, A. trisulcatum). Leaves: stipules usually persistent, subulate, lanceolate, or filiform; blade elliptic, ovate, [cordiform], sometimes shallowly lobed, but not maplelike [sometimes [sometimes umbellate]; involucel absent. Flowers: calyx not accrescent (except A. hulseanum, A. hypoleucum, A. palmeri, and A. wrightii), not inflated, not completely enclosing fruit, lobes not ribbed, lanceolate, ovate, cordate, or acuminate; corolla usually yellow or orange, less often pinkish, sometimes with dark red center; staminal column included or exserted; ovules 3(–6) per carpel; style 5–25-branched; stigmas sometimes black, capitate. Fruits schizocarps, erect, not inflated, globose, ovoid, oblate, cask-shaped, or cylindric, usually not indurate, variably hairy but not setose; mericarps 5–25, 1-celled follicle, adherent to adjacent mericarps and persistent on their axes, without dorsal spur, apex usually acute or acuminate to spinescent, sometimes rounded or obtuse, abaxially dehiscent. Seeds usually 3–6 per mericarp, usually turbinate, puberulent or scabridulous. x = 7, 8.
Herbs, usually perennial, or shrubs or rarely small trees, the indumentum mostly of stellate hairs, these sometimes intermingled with longer, simple hairs. Leaves usually petiolate, the uppermost leaves sometimes sessile or nearly so, the stipules deciduous, the blade often cordate at the base. Flowers axillary and soli- tary, occasionally racemose on short, axillary branchlets, sometimes aggregated in terminal and axillary, leafy or leafless, paniculiform inflorescences; pedicels usually articulated, sometimes geniculate above the middle; epicalyx wanting; calyx 5-merous, campanulate to cupuliform, lobed usually to far below the middle, the lobes erect, patent or reflexed at anthesis, persistent or slightly accrescent; petals 5, adnate to the base of the staminal tube, patent or sometimes reflexed at anthesis; staminal tube often ventricose below, filamentiferous at and also often near the apex, the filaments numerous, the anthers reniform; ovary of 5-co carpels, each carpel with 2-several ovules, the ovules anatropous; styles isomerous with the carpels, the stigmas truncate to capitellate to capitate. Fruits subglobose to disci- form, truncate or umbilicate at the apex, of 5-om 1-celled mericarps radially disposed around a central columella, the mericarps compressed laterally, inflated or not, muticous basally, muticous to aristate apically, separating ultimately from the central columella (but often remaining attached to the central columella long after maturity) and at length usually 2-valved, 3- to several-seeded; seeds superposed, more or less reniform, often asymmetrically so, the testa smooth to finely foveolate, glabrous or variously pubescent; embryo curved, the endosperm scant; cotyledons plicate.
"Epicalyx wanting; stamen-column with anthers at the top; carpels 5– many; ovules 3–9 per carpel; styles 5–many, slender, stigmatic at the top; mature carpels dehiscent across the top, rounded or beaked at the summit, eventually falling from the axis; herbs or shrubs, usually pubescent, with broad, cordate, angular or lobed lvs and axillary, usually yellow fls. 100+, warm reg."
Calyx with a cupular to campanulate tube; lobes 5, distinct, semi-orbicular to lanceolate, usually acute to acuminate.
Petals 5, connate at the base and adnate to the base of the staminal tube, usually conspicuously longer than the calyx and in open flowers usually spreading to rotate, generally obovate with a narrow subunguiculate often ciliate basal portion.
Staminal tube divided at the apex into many filaments, dilated below, glabrous or stellate-pubescent; free parts of filaments terete; anthers reniform.
Carpels 5 to c. 40, 3–9-ovulate, in a circle around a distinct torus and joined to form a subglobose gynoecium; style-branches as many as the carpels, terete, filiform or clavate; stigmas simple to somewhat capitate.
Biennial to perennial (rarely annual) erect or occasionally spreading herbs or shrubs, variously pubescent, usually with stellate hairs.
Leaves petiolate, usually more or less ovate in outline with cordate base.
Flowers generally yellow to orange, rarely white, mauve or purple, small to medium-sized, axillary, solitary or fascicled, rarely 2–4-nate on a common peduncle, sometimes on short axillary leafy side-shoots, sometimes aggregated in terminal and lateral leafy pseudo-panicles; pedicels usually articulated in the upper half often near the apex.
Fruit subglobose or turbinate to hemispherical or almost disk-shaped, often truncate, depressed or umbilicate at the apex; mericarps 5 to many, laterally compressed, follicular, (1) 2–3 (9)-seeded, separating from the ultimately conical or subcylindric and usually more or less produced or dilated to capitate torus and usually dehiscing by the ventral suture, ultimately grey or brown to black, oblong to subrectangular, reniform or more or less semi-orbicular, rounded to truncate at the base and rounded, truncate or acute at the apex, muticous to mucronate, apiculate or awned at the upper dorsal (outer) angle or at the apex, the ventral side with a usually distinct retrorse tooth which originally fitted over and against the apex of the torus.
A very large, pantropical genus, also widely distributed in subtropical regions. The species are so numerous in Mexico and Central America (cf. Kearney, A ten- tative key to the North American species of Abutilon Miller. Leafl. West. Bot. 7: 241-254. 1955) and in northern South America, that it is rather surprising to find only six species, at present, reported from Panama, one of which is introduced from India.
SELECTED REFERENCES Fryxell, J. E. 1983. A revision of Abutilon sect. Oligocarpae (Malvaceae), including a new species from Mexico. Madroño 30: 84–92. Fryxell, P. A. 2002. An Abutilon nomenclator. Lundellia 5: 79–118. Kearney, T. H. 1955. A tentative key to the North American species of Abutilon Miller. Leafl. W. Bot. 7: 241–254.
|Indian-mallow [probably Arabic abu, father of, and Persian tula or tulha, mallow]|
Steven R. Hill "Abutilon Mill. in Flora of North America @ efloras.org" eFlora. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA., 2016. Web. Accessed February 2018.