Aconitum L.
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 532. 1753. (1 May 1753)
  • Monkshood, aconite, wolfsbane, aconit [according to Pliny, the name "aconite" is taken from the ancient Black Sea port Aconis]


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Aconitum L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000000341. Accessed on: 21 Oct 2021'

General Information

Herbs , perennial, from tubers or elongate, fascicled roots. Leaves basal and cauline, proximal leaves petiolate, distal leaves sessile or nearly so; cauline leaves alternate. Leaf blade palmately divided into 3-7 segments, ultimate segments narrowly elliptic or lanceolate to linear, margins incised and toothed. Inflorescences terminal, sometimes also axillary, 1-32(-more) racemes or panicles, to 28 cm; bracts leaflike, not forming involucre. Flowers bisexual, bilaterally symmetric; sepals not persistent in fruit; lower sepals (pendents) 2, plane, 6-20 mm; lateral sepals 2, round-reniform; upper sepal (hood) 1, saccate, arched, crescent-shaped or hemispheric to rounded-conic or tall and cylindric, usually beaked, 10-50 mm; petals 2, distinct, bearing near apex a capitate to coiled spur, concealed in hood, long-clawed; nectary present, on spur; stamens 25-50; filaments with base expanded; staminodes absent between stamens and pistils; pistils 3(-5), simple; ovules 10-20 per pistil; style present. Fruits follicles, aggregate, sessile, oblong, sides prominently transversely veined; beak terminal, straight, 2-3 mm. Seeds deltoid, usually with small, transverse, membranous lamellae. x =8.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Herbs perennial or pseudoannual, rarely annual, with taproots or 2 to several caudices. Stem erect or twining. Leaves simple or compound, cauline ones alternate, sometimes all basal, palmately divided, rarely undivided. Inflorescence usually racemose. Pedicel with 2 bracteoles. Flowers bisexual, zygomorphic. Sepals 5, petaloid, purple, blue, or yellow; lower sepals 2, narrowly lanceolate or oblong, small; lateral sepals 2, suborbicular; upper sepal falcate, navicular, galeate to cylindric. Petals 2, clawed; limb usually with lip and spur, secretory tissue usually at limb apex, rarely abaxial. Staminodes usually absent. Stamens numerous; anthers ellipsoid-globose. Carpels 3--5(--13); style short, persistent.

  • Provided by: [A].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    "Fls irregular; calyx corolloid, with unequal sep, the upper one (called the helmet) the largest, strongly arched or hooded, its tip prolonged forward and downward into a short beak; upper 2 pet concealed under the helmet, clawed, nectariferous at the tip; lower 3 pet vestigial or wanting; stamens numerous; pistils 3–5, the fr follicular; poisonous perennial herbs with broad, palmately cleft lvs and showy, mostly blue or white fls in a terminal raceme or panicle. 50+, Eurasia and N. Amer."

  • Provided by: [C].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES

    Brink, D. E. 1982. Tuberous Aconitum (Ranunculaceae) of the continental United States: Morphological variation, taxonomy and disjunction. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 109: 13-23. Brink, D. E., J. A. Woods, and K. R. Stern. 1994. Bulbiferous Aconitum (Ranunculaceae) of the western United States. Sida 16: 9-15. Hardin, J. W. 1964. Variation in Aconitum of eastern United States. Brittonia 16: 80-94. Kadota, Y. 1987. A Revision of Aconitum subgenus Aconitum (Ranunculaceae) of East Asia. Utsunomiya. Munz, P. A. 1945. The cultivated aconites. Gentes Herb. 6: 462-505. Shteinberg, E. I. 1970. AconitumL. In: V. L. Komarov et al., eds. 1963+. Flora of the U.S.S.R. (Flora SSSR). Translated from Russian. 22+ vols. Jerusalem. Vol. 7, pp. 143-184.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Included Species

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Monkshood, aconite, wolfsbane, aconit [according to Pliny, the name "aconite" is taken from the ancient Black Sea port Aconis]

     Information From

    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • A Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • B Flora of North America Association
    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • C Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Ranunculaceae
    • D CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • E CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).