Acrocomia Mart.
  • Palm. Fam. 22. 1824. (13 Apr 1824)
  • Coyol, gru-gru [Greek akron, summit, and kome, hairs of the head, in reference to the high crown of leaves; akrokomos, with leaves at the top, said especially of palms]


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Acrocomia Mart. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000000409. Accessed on: 26 Nov 2020'

General Information

Stems solitary, robust, armed, covered with persistent leaf bases or bare. Leaves: petioles armed with needlelike prickles; petiole margins unarmed; blade pinnate, armed with prickles; plication reduplicate; segments regularly arranged, apices acute. Inflorescences axillary within crown of leaves, paniculate, arching, becoming pendulous in fruit, with 1 order of branching; prophyll short; peduncular bract woody, prickly, splitting abaxially, curling downward; rachis armed with prickles. Flowers unisexual, sessile, borne in triads of 1 pistillate flower flanked by 2 staminate flowers, staminate flowers borne singly along distal portions of rachillae. Staminate flowers: sepals 3, free; petals 3, valvate, leathery, basally connate, leathery; stamens 6, free; anthers rectangular; pistillode with 3 minute lobes. Pistillate flowers: sepals 3, imbricate, free; petals 3, imbricate, basally connate or nearly free; staminodes well -developed, bearing short, sterile anthers; pistils 1, large, tomentose; ovules 3; styles indistinct; stigmas 3. Fruits drupes, globose; exocarp brownish green, thin, pubescent near fruit apex [bristly]; mesocarp fleshy, oily; endocarp thick, bony, with 3 equatorial germination pores. Seeds irregular; endosperm homogeneous; embryo lateral; eophyll undivided [2-cleft], linear-lanceolate. nx = 15.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    ACROCOMIA Mart.

    Por Robert W. Read

    Acrocomia mexicana Karw. ex Mart., Hist. Nat. Palm. 285. 1845; A. vinifera Oerst.

    Palmas grandes, solitarias, fuertemente armadas; tallos fuertes, columnares, 8–20 m de alto, escasamente armados; plantas monoicas. Hojas numerosas, pinnadas, persistentes y colgantes por abajo de la corona, cerca de la porción superior del tallo, lámina insertada cerca del ápice de la vaina, 2–4 m de largo; pinnas numerosas, 50–60 a cada lado, angostamente lanceoladas, ca 100 cm de largo y 2–4 cm de ancho, puntiagudas o bífidas, generalmente glabras, irregularmente espaciadas, insertadas individualmente o en fascículos, patentes a arqueadas, plumosas excepto en el ápice de la hoja, generalmente glabras, verde brillantes en la haz, verde glaucas y frecuentemente pubescentes o pilosas en el envés, raquis variadamente armado abaxialmente con aguijones planos, grandes, de 1–5 (–10) cm de largo; vaina persistente, eventualmente cayendo sin dejar cicatriz, armada con numerosos acúleos grandes y negros, pecíolo raramente evidente. Inflorescencias interfoliares, pesadas, colgantes, una vez ramificadas, pedúnculo fuerte, arqueado, a menudo densamente lepidoto, setoso y fuertemente armado, primer y segundo nudos con brácteas primarias grandes y desiguales, bráctea peduncular 100–200 cm de largo, fusiforme, leñosa, rostrada, furfurácea o café tomentoso-lepidota, variadamente armada, raquis ca 100 cm de largo, glabro, ramas engrosadas, 10–30 cm de largo, glabras, variadamente flexuosas o tortuosas en la base, densamente foveoladas en el ápice; flores rara vez en tríades, más bien desiguales en forma y tamaño con las flores pistiladas grandes restringidas a la parte inferior flexuosa y las flores estaminadas solitarias y más pequeñas amontonadas en la parte apical foveolada; flores estaminadas 5–6 mm de largo, amarillentas, hundidas en las fóveas, solitarias excepto cuando asociadas con flores pistiladas, sépalos libres, ovado-triangulares, escasamente imbricados en la base, pétalos connados en la base, valvados en el ápice, ápice agudo-redondeado, estambres 6, pistilodio prominente, 3-fido; flores pistiladas ca 10 mm de largo, sépalos libres, ampliamente imbricados, redondeados, erosos en los márgenes, pétalos libres, imbricados excepto en el ápice donde son cortamente valvados, estaminodios formando una copa denticulada, finamente pubescente. Frutos deprimido-globosos, 3–4.5 cm de diámetro, verde olivas a amarillentos, residuo estigmático conspicuo, exocarpo cartáceo, mesocarpo fibroso, mucilaginoso, endocarpo globular, óseo, triporado; semilla 1, de contorno regular o irregular, hasta 2 cm de grueso, endosperma homogéneo, eofilo simple?

    Poco común en bosques secos y campos abiertos, zonas pacífica y norcentral; 100–1300 m; fl abr–may, fr mar–jun del siguiente año; Nee 27569, Stevens 9345; México a Panamá. Ha sido erróneamente tratada como A. belizensis L.H. Bailey o A. panamensis L.H. Bailey. Genero con ca 26 especies, distribuidas desde México hasta Argentina y en las Antillas. Henderson et al. (1995) consideran que el género consta de 2 especies siendo la nuestra un sinónimo de A. aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd. ex Mart. "Coyol".

  • Provided by: [B].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Tall single-trunked monoecious pinnate-leaved trees, very spiny (one excep- tion) on- bole and petioles and cymbas and sometimes on fruits; spines long and slender, commonly flattened, expanded or cushioned at base, usually black or at least very dark, not stiffly attached: leaves very long, becoming horizontal'and drooping, with very many pairs of narrow hanging long-pointed pinnae, commonly glabrous on the upper surface but often indefinitely pubescent on upper surface; petioles prickly on outer convex surface: spadices infrafoliar, consisting of a long central axis and short mostly simple ~side-branches or rachillae; cymbas 2, outer or primary one soon caducous, inner one persistent and often hanging as a dead body- long after the fruit has fallen: staminate flowers 5-7 mm. long, occupying -most of the length of the rachillae' and partially sunken in it, stamens 6; -pistillate flowers at the angles on the base of the rachilla, about 10 mm. long, partly im- mersed, ovary 3-celled: fruit a drupe-like body size of a walnut, 1-seeded by abortion, olive-green or yellowish, 3-4 cm. transverse diameter, mesocarp muci- -laginous with fibers running through it (sometimes edible) and that dries to a cork-like interior that stoutly adheres to the nut; rind becoming thin and then brittle as an egg-shell; nutlet conical to almost globular, with 3 eyes or micropyles, albumen hard and continuous.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Distribution

    About 25 species of conspicuous ornamental trees, often planted, native from Cuba and Mexico to Argentina and Paraguay.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES

    Peterson, B. 1991. A comparison of some central Florida acrocomias. Centr. Florida Palm Bull. 11(1): 11--12. Peterson, B. 1991b. Acrocomia naturalized in central Florida. Principes 35: 110--111.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Coyol, gru-gru [Greek akron, summit, and kome, hairs of the head, in reference to the high crown of leaves; akrokomos, with leaves at the top, said especially of palms]
    Gru-gru

     Information From

    Arecaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • C Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • D Flora of North America Association
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • E CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).