Allium L.
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 294. 1753. (1 May 1753)
  • Onion [Latin, classical name for garlic]

Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Allium L. Published on the Internet; Accessed on: 18 Oct 2021'

General Information


Allium cepa L., Sp. Pl. 300. 1753.

Hierbas bulbíferas, escaposas; bulbos solitarios o varios, hasta 10 cm de diámetro, tunicados, las túnicas externas membranáceas. Hojas basales, 1–10, envainadoras en la base, más o menos semicirculares en sección transversal, hasta 40 cm de largo y 2 cm de ancho. Escapo inflado en la parte inferior, 30–60 cm de largo; inflorescencia una umbela multiflora terminal con 2 ó 3 brácteas subyacentes reflexas más o menos connadas, pedicelos 1–26 mm de largo, flores actinomorfas; tépalos 6 en 2 verticilos de 3, libres, marcescentes, todos semejantes, angostamente lanceolados, 3–4.5 mm de largo y 2–2.5 mm de ancho, de color lila o blanco con la costa verde; estambres 6, exertos, filamentos adnados en la base a los tépalos, los 3 internos ensanchados y lobulados o dentados por ambos lados, anteras dorsifijas, introrsas, longitudinalmente dehiscentes; ovario súpero, 3-locular, estilo solitario, ginobásico, estigma diminutamente 3-lobado. Fruto una cápsula loculicida.

Cultivada; 50 m; fl ago; Araquistain 1; especie cuyas poblaciones nativas son desconocidas, hoy en día cultivada en todo el mundo. Género con ca 500 especies, principalmente del hemisferio norte. "Cebolla".

  • Provided by: [F].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Hierbas bulbíferas, escapíferas. Bulbos simples o compuestos. Hojas aplanadas o cilíndricas, sólidas o hue-cas, con olor a ajo o cebolla. Infl. una umbela. Fls. de varios colores. Tépalos separados. Estilo ginobásico. Es-tigma capitado a trilobado.

  • Provided by: [B].Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Herbs, perennial, scapose, from tunicate bulbs, with onion odor and taste. Bulbs solitary or clustered, dividing at base, or on rhizomes, reforming annually; outer coats generally brown or gray, smooth, fibrous, or with cellular reticulation (generally important in identification); inner coats membranous. Leaves generally withering from tip by anthesis, usually persistent, 1–12, basal; blade usually linear, terete, channeled, or flat (carinate in A. sativum, A. praecox, A. tuberosum, A. rotundum, A. neapolitanum, A. triquetrum, A. unifolium, and A. lacunosum), straight or ± falcate (coiled or circinate in A. nevadense and A. atrorubens), broader in A. victorialis and A. tricoccum, not petiolate (except in A. tricoccum and A. victorialis). Scape usually persistent, terete or flattened. Inflorescences umbellate, flowering centripetally (centrifugally in A. schoenoprasum), sometimes replaced totally or partially by bulbils, subtended by spathe bracts; bracts conspicuous, ± fused, usually 3+-veined, equaling pedicel except in some introduced species, membranous. Flowers erect (pendent in A. triquetrum); tepals 6, in 2 similar whorls, ± distinct, petallike, usually becoming becoming dry and persisting; stamens 6, epipetalous; filaments in all but 1 native species broad at base, fused into ring (some introduced species and A. victorialis appendaged), linear, generally glabrous (A. rotundum and A. hoffmanii papillose to ciliate proximally); anthers and pollen variously colored; ovary superior, 3-lobed, sometimes crested with processes, 3-locular, usually 2 ovules per locule (6–8 in A. nigrum), crest processes 3 or 6, smooth except in A. haematochiton, A. sharsmithiae, and A. lacunosum; style 1; stigma capitate to ± 3-lobed; pedicel erect or spreading (lax in A. triquetrum). Fruits capsular, dehiscence loculicidal. Seeds black, obovoid, finely cellular-reticulate, cells smooth or minutely roughened, with 1–8 papillae, without caruncle except in A. triquetrum. x = 7, 8, 9.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora of North America @
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Herbs perennial, bulbiferous, sometimes with well-developed, thick or thin rhizomes, rarely with stolons or tuberous roots, usually with onionlike, leeklike, or garliclike odor when fresh. Bulb covered with a tunic. Leaves sessile, very rarely narrowed into a petiole, with a closed leaf sheath at base, linear, linear-lanceolate, or lorate to orbicular-ovate, cross section flat, angled, or semiterete to terete, fistulose or solid. Scape terminal or lateral, sheathed or naked. Inflorescence a terminal umbel, sometimes with bulblets, rarely flowerless and with bulblets only, enclosed in a spathelike bract before anthesis. Pedicels with or without basal bracteoles. Flowers bisexual, very rarely degenerating into unisexual (when plants dioecious). Perianth segments free or united into a tube at base. Filaments usually connate at base and adnate to perianth segments, entire or toothed. Ovary with 1 to several ovules per locule; septa often containing nectaries opening by pores at base of ovary. Style simple; stigma entire or 3-cleft. Capsule loculicidal. Seeds black, rhomboidal or spheroidal.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora Of CHina @
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    "Fls perfect; tep 6, uniform in color but often somewhat unlike in shape or size, generally withering and persistent below the fr; stamens 6, often adnate to the base of the tep, the filaments of the epipetalous series often wider, or strongly flattened, or variously toothed; anthers short, introrse; ovules 1 or 2 per locule; capsule short, ovoid to globose or obovoid, 3-lobed, loculicidal; seeds black; herbs from a coated bulb, with a strong odor of onion or garlic, the lvs usually narrow, basal or on the lower part of the stem, the scape- like stem erect, terminated by a determinate umbel subtended by 1–3 bracts; fls white to pink or purple, sometimes replaced by sessile bulblets. 500, N. Hemisphere."

  • Provided by: [E].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 



    Cronquist, A. and M. Ownbey. 1977. Allium. In: A. Cronquist et al. 1972+. Intermountain Flora. Vascular Plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A. 5+ vols. New York and London. Vol. 6, pp. 508–522. New York. Davies, D. 1992. Alliums, the Ornamental Onions. Portland. Denison, S. S. and D. W. McNeal Jr. 1989. A reevaluation of the Allium sanbornii (Alliaceae) complex. Madroño 36: 122–130. Gregory, M. et al. 1998. Nomenclator Alliorum: Allium Names and Synonyms, a World Guide. Kew. Hanelt, P. 1992. Infrageneric grouping of Allium—The Gatersleban approach. In: P. Hanelt et al., eds. 1992. The Genus Allium: Taxonomic Problems and Genetic Resources….Gatersleben. Pp. 107–123. Jacobsen, T. D. 1978. A Comparative Study of Three Alliances of the Genus Allium. Ph.D. thesis. Washington State University. Mathew, B. 1996. A Review of Allium sect. Allium. Kew. McNeal, D. W. Jr. 1970. Comparative Studies of the Allium acuminatum Alliance. Ph.D. thesis. Washington State University. McNeal, D. W. Jr. 1982. Taxonomy of the Allium lacunosum complex (Liliaceae). Madroño 29: 79–86. McNeal, D. W. Jr. 1992. A revision of the Allium fimbriatum (Alliaceae) complex. Aliso 13: 411–426. McNeal, D. W. Jr. 1992b. A reappraisal of Allium cristatum (Alliaceae) and its allies. Madroño 39: 83–89. Mingrone, L. V. 1968. A Comparative Study of the Allium falcifolium Alliance. Ph.D. thesis. Washington State University. Mortola, W. R. and D. W. McNeal Jr. 1985. Taxonomy of the Allium tribracteatum (Alliaceae) complex. Aliso 11: 27–35. Ownbey, M. 1947. The genus Allium in Arizona. Res. Stud. State Coll. Wash. 15: 211–232. Ownbey, M. 1950. The genus Allium in Idaho. Res. Stud. State Coll. Wash. 18: 3–39. Ownbey, M. 1950b. The genus Allium in Texas. Res. Stud. State Coll. Wash. 18: 181–222. Ownbey, M. 1969b. Allium. In: C. L. Hitchcock et al. 1955–1969. Vascular Plants of the Pacific Northwest. 5 vols. Seattle. Vol. 1, pp. 739–760. Ownbey, M. and H. C. Aase. 1955. Cytotaxonomic studies in Allium. I. The Allium canadense alliance. Res. Stud. State Coll. Wash., suppl. 1: 1–106. Peterson, P. M., C. R. Annable, and L. H. Rieseberg. 1988. Systematic relationships and nomenclatural changes in the Allium douglasii complex (Alliaceae). Syst. Bot. 13: 207–214.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora of North America @
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Included Species

    Other Local Names

    Onion [Latin, classical name for garlic]

     Information From

    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
    Hammel, B. E.; Grayum, M. H.; Herrera, C.; Zamora, N. Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2003-2014
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Of CHina @
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • C Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora of North America @
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • D Flora of North America Association
    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • E Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Flora de Nicaragua
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
    World Flora Online consortium
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • G CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).