Allophylus L.
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 348. 1753. (1 May 1753)


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Allophylus L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000001292. Accessed on: 24 Nov 2020'

General Information

Shrubs, rarely trees [rarely woody climbers], monoecious or dioecious. Leaves digitate, stipules absent; leaflets 1-5, petiolate or subsessile, usually serrate, sometimes entire. Thyrses axillary, racemose or compound racemose; bracts and bracteoles subulate or lanceolate, small. Flowers unisexual, zygomorphic, closed, small. Sepals 4, concurved, outer 2 elliptic, slightly smaller, inner 2 suborbicular. Petals 4, each 2 in a pair, adaxially with scales at base. Disk 4-sect, lobes glandlike, apex truncate or obtuse. Stamens (male flowers) 8, sometimes fewer, exserted; filaments free or connate below middle. Ovary (female flowers) 2(or 3)-partitioned, 2-loculed, lobes subglobose or obovate; ovules 1 per locule, inserted near base of middle axis; style basilar, entire or 2- or 3-lobed nearly to base; stigma recurved. Fruit parted into 2 or 3 schizocarps, often only 1 developed, berrylike, subglobose or obovoid, base with rudimentary style and small, globose, sterile schizocarp, exocarp fleshy, juicy, endocarp crustaceous. Seeds nearly same as schizocarp in shape; embryo arched, reflexed. 2n = 28.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    ALLOPHYLUS L.

    Arbustos o árboles; plantas polígamas. Hojas comúnmente 1–3 (–5)-folioladas (3-folioladas en Nicaragua), pecioladas; folíolos enteros o serrados, frecuentemente con puntos o líneas. Inflorescencia paniculada o racemosa, axilar, flores zigomorfas pequeñas de hasta 2 mm de largo, blancas, pediceladas, frecuentemente cerradas en antesis; sépalos 4, imbricados en pares opuestos, membranáceos, los 2 exteriores más pequeños; pétalos 4, pequeños, glabros; disco unilateral, lobado o con 4 glándulas cortas; estambres 8, mayormente excéntricos, incluidos o cortamente exertos; ovario excéntrico, generalmente 2-locular, 2-lobado, estilo 2–3-lobado, óvulos solitarios, basalmente unidos. Fruto 1 (raramente 2) coco indehiscente, ovoide-globoso, seco o carnoso; semilla obovoide con arilo corto.

    Género con ca 190 especies ampliamente distribuidas en las regiones tropicales y subtropicales del mundo. Radlkofer listó 53 para las Américas, mayormente de Sudamérica; 5 especies se encuentran en Centroamérica y 3 de ellas en Nicaragua. Según Radlkofer, Allophylus está estrechamente emparentado con Thouinia en la sección Thouinieae.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora de Nicaragua
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    Polygamous shrubs or small trees. Leaves (1-)3(-5)-foliolate, petiolate, exstipulate; leaflets entire or serrate, often punctate or lineolate. Inflorescences axillary, racemiform or loosely paniculate. Flowers irregular, small, pedicellate, globose or often closed at anthesis; sepals 4, imbricate, in opposite pairs, the other two smaller, cucullate, membranous, glabrate or barbate within; petals 4, spat- ulate, the petal scale short, bifid or V-shaped; disc unilateral, lobate or with 4 obtuse glands; stamens 8, eccentric; ovary eccentric, usually of 2 cells, bilobed, the style 2- or 3-lobate, eccentric in fruit, the ovules solitary, ascending from the base of the cell. Fruit a single (rarely 2) obovoid-globular, indehiscent, dry or fleshy coccus; seed obovoid with a short aril.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora de Panama
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    Morphology

    Leaves (1) 3-foliolate, usually minutely glandular beneath.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Trees or shrubs.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Flowers monoecious (? rarely polygamo-dioecious) usually male and female in the same inflorescence (the female usually apparently hermaphrodite but the anthers sterile), small, greenish, white or yellowish.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Inflorescence a racemoid or paniculate thyrse.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Petals 4, clavate or spathulate with an emarginate apex, each with a usually (always in our species) hairy scale.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Sepals 4, the 2 outer ones larger, imbricate.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Disk unilateral, usually 4-lobed.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Fruit drupaceous, of 2–3 cocci or frequently of 1 coccus by abortion.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Seeds obovoid, without arillodes, usually (always in our species) glabrous.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Stamens 8 (rarely fewer), slightly connate at the base, somewhat shorter in the female flowers (staminodes).

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Ovary deeply 2–3-lobed; loculi 1-ovulate; style 2–3-fid.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Seeds straw-coloured, ellipsoid to globose, without an aril.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Fruit usually red, 1–2(–3)-lobed and seeded, drupe-like, the abortive lobes not persisting

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Ovary 2–3-locular, deeply 2–3-lobed, the lobes subglobose, with 1 basal ovule in each; style semigynobasic, 2–3(–4)-fid

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Stamens 8, placed to one side of the disk; reduced to staminodes in female flowers

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Disk unilateral, 2–4-lobed

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Leaves 1–3(–4)-foliolate, often minutely glandular beneath

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Flowers small, slightly irregular, sessile or shortly pedicellate, in several-flowered cymules which are densely or more openly placed along simple raceme-like axes or branched axes thus appearing paniculate; cymules sessile or shortly stalked

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Sepals 4, unequal, imbricate.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Petals 4, spathulate with internal ciliate scale.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Trees, shrubs or woody climbers, monoecious or dioecious

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Arbustes'± sarmenteux, rarement lianes, ou arbres le plus souvent de moyenne grandeur, monoïques ou dioïques.'Feuilles'alternes, 3-foliolées, rarement 1-foliolées, présentant souvent des touffes de poils (domaties) à l'aisselle des nervures secondaires.'Inflorescences'simples ou ramifiées, en faux épis ou panicules de cymules.'Fleurs'petites, brièvement pédicellées, légèrement zygomorphes, ♂♀ par avortement, les ♀ d'aspect ☿; sépales 4, inégaux; pétales 4, onguiculés et, en général, pourvus à la face interne d'une écaille ± velue; disque unilatéral, ± lobé; étamines 8, dépassant peu les pétales, à filet souvent velu; ovaire à 2-3 carpelles soudés entre eux seulement par la base, 1-ovulés; style gynobasique, à 2-3 branches stigmatiques.'Fruits'souvent réduits par avortement à 1-2 méricarpes drupacés, petits, à noyau (? crustacé.'Graines à tégument mince; embryon courbé, à réserves lipidiques.\n\t\t\t\tGrand genre tropical et subtropical répandu dans tous les continents, sauf l'Europe, comptant quelque 200 espèces dont 60-70 en Afrique et 26 au Congo belge, en partie mal connues.\n\t\t\t\tCe genre est particulièrement difficile en raison du manque presque général de caractères distinctifs fournis par les fleurs et les fruits, et, par contre, de l'extrême variabilité des organes végétatifs, variabilité s'étendant même au port renseigné souvent comme arborescent, arbustif ou sarmenteux pour une même espèce. D'autre part, quelque 17'Allophylus décrits avant 1921 pour le Congo et les régions limitrophes, spécialement orientales, n'ont pas été pris en considération par Radlkofer (l.c., p. 546 et 1 en note); enfin, les types des nombreuses espèces créées par les botanistes allemands ont été détruits. Il résulte de ces faits une insécurité de la systématique spécialement dans certains groupes où se rangent des espèces à vaste distribution, chez lesquelles les formes de transition sont si nombreuses qu'une détermination précise est malaisée si pas impossible.\n\t\t\t\tDans la clé, les caractères et les dimensions attribués aux organes expriment en général l'écart moyen de leurs variations, en négligeant les extrêmes exceptionnels.

  • Provided by: [H].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
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    Habit

    shrubs or small trees

  • Provided by: [D].Flora de Panama
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    Distribution

    The genus contains about 190 species. Radlkofer's (1933-1934) monograph included 53 species for the Americas. Most of these are South American. Central America (including Mexico and Panama) has about 6 species with 3 in Mexico, 4 species in Middle America and 3 species in Panama.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora de Panama
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    Included Species

      Bibliography

     Information From

    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • A Missouri Botanical Garden
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • C
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • E
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • G Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    https://www.floredafriquecentrale.be
    • H http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
    Sapindaceae
    • I CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • J CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).