Bulbophyllum Thouars
  • Hist. Orchid. Table 3 of the species of orchids. 1822.
  • [Greek bolbos, bulb, and phyllon, leaf, referring to its leafy pseudobulb]


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Bulbophyllum Thouars. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000005730. Accessed on: 16 Oct 2021'

General Information

BULBOPHYLLUM Thouars

Epífitas o litófitas, muy pequeñas hasta grandes y vistosas, rizoma rastrero, revestido con vainas escariosas; pseudobulbos cortos, subcónicos, ovado-cónicos o angulares, a veces inconspicuos, más o menos distanciados entre sí o agregados, apicalmente 1–3-foliados. Hojas lineares a suborbiculares, por lo general coriáceas o carnosas. Inflorescencias espiciformes densas, a veces subumbeladas o racimos erectos (raras veces unifloras), emergiendo de la base de los pseudobulbos o del rizoma entre los pseudobulbos, las flores pequeñas hasta bastante grandes, sésiles o cortamente pediceladas; sépalos generalmente libres, los laterales oblicuamente dilatados en la base y a veces connados, adnados al pie de la columna y formando un mentón; pétalos por lo general mucho más pequeños y más angostos que los sépalos, enteros o ciliados, a menudo pubescentes; labelo frecuentemente carnoso-engrosado o 2-lamelado, simple o 3-lobado, articulado al pie de la columna; columna corta y erecta, con pie y un par de dientes terminales y aristas o alas, polinios normalmente 4, ceráceos, con estípite y con retináculo ausente o rudimentario. Cápsulas globosas, ovoides o elipsoides.

Género con ca 1000 especies distribuidas en los trópicos y subtrópicos del mundo; 2 especies en Nicaragua.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Epiphytic herbs, with short, subconic or angulate, 1- to 2-leaved pseudobulbs often widely spaced along a creeping rhizome. Inflorescences erect or arching spikes or racemes produced from the base of the pseudobulbs. Flowers numerous, inconspicuous, subtended by a bract, free on short pedicels or sessile in shallow pits on the fleshy peduncle. Sepals free, or the laterals connate and obliquely dilated at the base, adnate to the foot of the column. Petals smaller than the sepals, with entire or ciliate margins. Lip simple, fleshy, or with a thickened basal callus, con- tracted at the base and hinged to the column foot. Column short, erect, produced at the base into a foot. Anther terminal, operculate, incumbent, depressed-hemis- pherical or obtusely conical, usually 2 celled; pollinia normally 4, waxy, in pairs in the cells of the anther.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Epífitas; pseudobulbos ovoides, 4–6-angulados, ampliamente separados sobre un rizoma rastrero. Hojasusualmente 2, terminales, conduplicadas, estrechas basalmente. Infl. lateral, péndula o arqueada, el raquis ± carnoso. Fls. no claramente resupinadas, subsésiles, pequeñas; labelo articulado al pie de la columna; columnacorta; antera operculada; polinios 4, sin apéndices.

  • Provided by: [G].Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • 12
    • ]. 

    Herbs, epiphytic. Rhizome usually rather long, creeping or hanging, usually bearing a series of pseudobulbs, very rarely without pseudobulbs. Pseudobulbs well spaced to clustered on rhizome, each with a single joint. Leaves 1 or rarely 2 or 3, arising from apex of pseudobulbs or very rarely directly from rhizome; leaf blade usually leathery, varying in size. Scape arising laterally from base of a pseudobulb or from a node of rhizome; inflorescence usually racemose or umbellate, 1- to many flowered; floral bracts often small. Flowers small to large. Sepals subequal in size or lateral sepals much longer than dorsal one; lateral sepals free or ± connate on lower or upper edges, base adnate to column foot forming a short mentum. Petals free, usually smaller than sepals; lip often hinged to end of column foot, mobile or sometimes immobile, usually fleshy and recurved. Column short, winged, base with a distinct foot; wings often dilated to form teeth or stelidia; anther 2-locular, sometimes 1-locular; pollinia 4, in 2 pairs, waxy, without appendages, sometimes attached to sticky substance.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Herbs, epiphytic or lithophytic, sympodial. Roots velamentous, glabrous. Stems rhizomatous, covered by scarious sheaths; pseudobulbs often angled, ovoid, stout. Leaves conduplicate, articulate, thin to leathery. Inflorescences lateral from base of pseudobulb, spikes [racemes], erect to pendent, pedunculate, rachis swollen, fleshy. Flowers resupinate, sessile; dorsal sepal distinct and free; lateral sepals adnate to column foot forming mentum; petals distinct and free, smaller than sepals; lip fleshy; column erect with aristate terminal teeth or wings; anther terminal, incumbent, operculate; pollinia 2 or 4, hard, waxy; stigma entire; ovary sessile [pedicellate]. Fruits capsules, beakless. x = 19, 20.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 10
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    Morphology

    Leaves mostly coriaceous or fleshy, rarely thin-textured.

  • Provided by: [J].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
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    Inflorescences arising from base of the pseudobulb, racemose or rarely umbellate, (1)few- to many-flowered.

  • Provided by: [J].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
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    Rhizomes creeping, often woody, sometimes branched.

  • Provided by: [J].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Pseudobulbs each comprising 1 internode (representing the main axis ofa sympodial branch), clustered or spaced out along the rhizome, 1–2(3)-leaved at the apex.

  • Provided by: [J].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Epiphytic or lithophytic herb with sympodial growth.

  • Provided by: [J].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Column short, usually with apical lateral extensions (stelidia), and often winged.

  • Provided by: [J].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Petals usually smaller than the sepals.

  • Provided by: [J].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Lip often much smaller than the sepals, hinged to end of the column foot, usually motile, often fleshy and tongue-like, sometimes fringed with long or short hairs.

  • Provided by: [J].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Rhachis sometimes swollen or flattened; flowers white, cream, yellow, green, orange or purple, ± fleshy.

  • Provided by: [J].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Sepals usually free and subequal, the lateral sepals united at the base to the column foot to form an obscure mentum.

  • Provided by: [J].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Pollinia 2 or 4 in 2 pairs.

  • Provided by: [J].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Column short, often winged and with apical stelidia; anther small, 2-chambered, with 4 pollinia in pairs; column-foot mostly incurved, united to base of lateral sepals.

  • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Lip often much smaller than sepals, hinged to end of column-foot, often highly mobile, often fleshy, ligulate and curved, mostly entire

  • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Petals mostly much smaller than sepals

  • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Dorsal sepal subequal and less commonly much shorter than lateral sepals; lateral sepals free or rarely adnate, united at base to column-foot to form a ± prominent mentum

  • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Leaves mostly coriaceous or fleshy or rarely thin-textured, small to large

  • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Pseudobulbs 1-noded, clustered or distant, stem-like or more often swollen, ± angled in cross-section, arising from rhizome at intervals, 1–2-leaved (rarely more) at the apex

  • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Flowers ± fleshy, often not opening widely, mostly small in African species, white, cream or green to orange and purple

  • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Inflorescences arising from base of pseudobulb or rarely from node on rhizome, 1–many-flowered, racemose or rarely umbellate

  • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Epiphytic or lithophytic sympodial herbs; rhizome short or long and creeping, often branched, slender to quite stout

  • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Herbes'épiphytes, rhizomateuses, à tiges courtes et épaissies en pseudobulbes.'Feuilles'terminales 1-3, généralement pétiolées. Inflorescences latérales et généralement basilaires, en racèmes spiciformes ou exceptionnellement en pseudo-ombelles; rachis souvent aplati voire ailé; bractées développées ou non.'Fleurs généralement non résupinées; périanthe généralement blanchâtre, jaunâtre ou verdâtre, rarement orangé, à sépales libres, les latéraux exceptionnellement adhérents entre eux vers le sommet; pétales libres, exceptionnellement réduits; labelle simple, libre et articulé avec le gynostème qui est allongé, incurvé, souvent denté ou ailé et surmonté de 2 stélidies; anthère à 2-4 pollinies céracées; stigmates soudés en coupe ou en fente, à rostelle formant une simple ligne.\n\t\t\t\tGenre pantropical comprenant un millier d'espèces dont environ 70 en Afrique. Pour la Flore: 44 espèces et 17 taxons infraspécifiques.

  • Provided by: [F].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    • Source: [
    • 13
    • ]. 

    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES

    Vermeulen, J. J. 1987. A taxonomic revision of the continental African Bulbophyllinae. Orchid Monogr. 2. Vermeulen, J. J. 1993. A taxonomic revision of Bulbophyllum, sections Adelopetalum, Lepanthanthe, Macrouris, Pelma, Peltopus, and Uncifera (Orchidaceae). Orchid Monogr. 7.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Included Species

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    [Greek bolbos, bulb, and phyllon, leaf, referring to its leafy pseudobulb]

     Information From

    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • A Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • C Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • E Flora of North America Association
    Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    https://www.floredafriquecentrale.be
    • F http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
    Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Costa%20Rica
    Hammel, B. E.; Grayum, M. H.; Herrera, C.; Zamora, N. Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2003-2014
    • G Missouri Botanical Garden
    Orchidaceae
    • H CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • I
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • J
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • K CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).