Caesalpinia 


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Caesalpinia . Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000005909. Accessed on: 16 Oct 2021'

General Information

CAESALPINIA L.; Guilandina L.; Poinciana L.; Libidibia (DC.) Schltdl.; Brasilettia (DC.) Kuntze; Nicarago Britton & Rose; Poincianella Britton & Rose

Por Alex Lasseigne

Arboles, arbustos, o trepadoras altas, inermes o aculeados, frecuentemente setosos. Hojas 2-pinnadas; folíolos pequeños y numerosos o grandes y pocos, herbáceos o coriáceos. Inflorescencias racimos laxos y axilares o panículas terminales; cáliz cortamente campanulado, lobos 5, los inferiores externos cuando en yema y frecuentemente más grandes, cóncavos o cimbiformes; pétalos 5, orbicular-oblongos, generalmente con la uña larga, subiguales o el superior más pequeño, amarillos, rojos o variegados; estambres 10, libres, declinados, los filamentos generalmente vellosos o glandulares en la base; ovario libre del cáliz. Fruto una legumbre variable, 2-valvada o indehiscente, ovada, lanceolada, linear o falcada, comprimida o hinchada, aculeada, pubescente o glandulosa, o plana y glabra, rostrada, frecuentemente rellena entre las semillas, las suturas engrosadas; semillas 1–8, transversales, ovadas, orbiculares o globosas, la testa coriácea.

Género con 200 especies o más de las regiones tropicales y cálidas de ambos hemisferios, principalmente en las Américas y en Asia; 8 especies son nativas o naturalizadas en Nicaragua. Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth) Alston (C. sepiaria Roxb.) se cultiva como ornamental en Nicaragua. Una inusual colección estéril, Moreno 22475, de Boaco a 200 m, probablemente deba ser incluida en este género. Esta tiene hojas trifoliado-pinnadas con 4 folíolos por pinna y el margen de los folíolos con numerosas glándulas negras. Britton y Rose dividieron las especies norteamericanas en 13 géneros, pero al momento prefiero tratar al grupo en el sentido amplio. El género tiene importancia económica debido al contenido de taninos en los frutos de varias especies y porque algunas especies son ornamentales.

G.P. Lewis. Caesalpinia. A Revision of the Poincianella–Erythrostemon Group. 1998.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Trees, shrubs or sometimes vine-like or subherbaceous, armed or unarmed. Leaves twice-pinnate; petioles and rachis eglandular, glabrous or variously pubes- cent; pinnae usually several and opposite or subopposite on the rachis; ultimate leaflets few to many, opposite in pairs, or less frequently alternate, in the pinna. Inflorescence mostly racemose, variously pubescent; bracts normally caducous. Flowers yellowish or less commonly pinkish; calyx with a conspicuous tube and 5 imbricate lobes, the outermost lobe more or less cucullate and enclosing the bud; petals free, nearly equal, inserted upon the upper calyx-tube; stamens normally 10, free, inserted with the petals on the calyx-tube, usually subdeclinate; filaments mostly pubescent, often glandular; anthers small, bilocular, longitudinally de- hiscent, versatile; ovary free, sessile or short-stipitate, inserted at base of calyx- tube; stigma terminal, usually not dilated. Legume compressed or flattened, usually unarmed and dehiscent; seeds transverse.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Trees, shrubs, or climbers, usually with prickles. Leaves alternate, bipinnate; leaflets alternate or opposite, small or large. Inflo­rescences racemes or panicles, axillary or terminal. Flowers yellow or orange-yellow, medium-large or large. Receptacle concave. Sepals separate, imbricate, lowest one larger. Petals 5, often clawed, spreading, 4 usually orbicular, sometimes oblong, uppermost smaller, different in color, shape, and pubescence from others. Stamens 10, in 2 whorls; filaments thickened and hairy at bases; an­thers ovoid or elliptic, dorsifixed and versatile. Ovary 1-7-ovuled; style terete; stigma truncate or hollow at center. Legume com­pressed or swollen, ovoid, oblong, or lanceolate, sometimes falcate, winged or not, smooth or spiny, leathery or woody, rarely fleshy, dehiscent or indehiscent. Seeds ovoid or globose; albumen absent.

  • Provided by: [H].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Seeds transverse or nearly so, hard; funicle short; endosperm present or absent.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Pods very variable, usually flat or ± compressed, very rarely cylindrical, not winged, indehiscent or dehiscent and 2-valved, hard and woody or thick and pulpy

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Ovary free, subsessile or shortly stipitate, usually with 2 to ± 10 ovules, glabrous, pubescent or glandular; style glabrous, or clothed below like the ovary; stigma truncate or oblique, ciliolate or glabrous

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Stamens 10, fertile, rarely and casually with 1 ± abortive; filaments alternately longer and shorter, all pubescent or villous and often glandular below; anthers dorsifixed, dehiscing by longitudinal slits

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Petals 5, subequal except for the usually somewhat modified upper one, which usually has a rather smaller lamina and more pronounced claw

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Inflorescences of terminal, sometimes falsely lateral, or terminal and axillary racemes or panicles; rarely racemes much reduced, the flowers thus single or very few together; bracts usually quickly falling

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Leaves bipinnate, very rarely (and not in East Africa) reduced to scales (“switch-plant” habit); stipules various, minute to conspicuously leafy; specialized glands restricted to petiole and rhachis absent, although a general glandular indumentum may be sometimes present; leaflets opposite, rarely alternate, glandular or sometimes eglandular

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Sepals 5, imbricate, sometimes very narrowly so, or almost valvate; the lower sepal often cucullate at apex and clasping the others

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Flowers hermaphrodite, or ♂ ⚥ in C. bonduc and C. volkensii among native species

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Shrubs, erect or more often scrambling or climbing, or trees, armed with spines or prickles or sometimes unarmed

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Sepals 5, imbricate to sometimes almost valvate, the lowermost curving up to overlap the other 4.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Hypanthium shallow, ± obconic.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Flowers in terminal or lateral racemes or panicles, these rarely much reduced to single or few flowers; bracts usually caducous.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Leaves bipinnate with paired pinnae; leaflets opposite, glandular or eglandular; without specialised glands on petiole and rachis, though sometimes with a general glandular indumentum; stipules minute to conspicuous and leafy.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Stamens 10, alternately longer and shorter; filaments pubescent to villous and often glandular in the lower part; anthers dorsifixed, dehiscing by longitudinal slits.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Petals 5, subequal except for the uppermost one which is usually modified in shape and size.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Shrubs, erect or usually scrambling or climbing, or sometimes trees, usually armed with spines or prickles but sometimes unarmed.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Ovary ± sessile or shortly stipitate, glabrous or with various indumentum; stigma truncate or oblique, ciliolate or glabrous.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Pods very variable, usually compressed, not winged, dehiscent or not, sometimes spiny; seeds variable, endosperm present or absent.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Arbres , arbustes ou lianes, épineux rarement inermes.'Feuilles'bipennées; folioles parfois à ponctuations translucides; stipules persistantes ou caduques; stipelles rarement présentes; bractées ± rapidement caduques.'Inflorescences'en racèmes multiflores, parfois en panicules.'Fleurs'☿, rarement ♂♀ par avortement, pédicellées; réceptacle oblique, cupuliforme, ± persistant; sépales 5, imbriqués, subégaux, l'extérieur plus large et en forme de capuchon recouvrant les autres au sommet dans le bouton; pétales 5, imbriqués, généralement onguiculés, allongés à suborbiculaires, inégaux, l'intérieur plus petit et à onglet plus long; étamines 10, libres, à filets élargis, pubescents à velus vers la base; anthères versatiles, à déhiscence longitudinale; ovaire sessile à courtement stipité; ovules 1 à nombreux, sur 1-2 rangs; style filiforme ou nul; stigmate petit, terminal, généralement concave et ciliolé.'Gousses'oblongues, ovales-oblongues, parfois falciformes, plates ou renflées, coriaces à subligneuses, lisses ou épineuses, déhiscentes ou indéhiscentes.'Graines transversales, orbiculaires ou allongées, exalbuminées ou albuminées.\n\t\t\t\tGenre pantropical comprenant environ 100 espèces. En Afrique tropicale, 13 espèces pour la plupart introduites (8) ou cultivées et devenant subspontanées; 6 espèces au Congo belge dont 3 introduites ou subspontanées.

  • Provided by: [D].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Habit

    Tree shrub

  • Provided by: [C].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    vine

  • Provided by: [C].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Distribution

    Widely distributed, in tropics and subtropics of both hemispheres.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Included Species

     Information From

    Fabaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • C Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    https://www.floredafriquecentrale.be
    • D http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • E
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • G
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • H Missouri Botanical Garden
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • I CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).