Calamus L.
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 325. 1753. (1 May 1753)


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Calamus L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000005953. Accessed on: 28 Oct 2021'

General Information

Stems clustered or less often solitary, mostly slender and climbing, occasionally non-climbing and then either short and subterranean or free standing. Leaves 10-60, pinnate, spiny; sheaths closed in climbing stems, open in non-climbers, variously hairy and spiny, hairs of young sheaths soon wearing off; sheath spines scattered or densely arranged (rarely absent), or arranged in rows, occasionally hairy on margins, variously shaped and colored, sometimes arranged in overlapping, interlocking rings and forming chambers; sheath apices usually extended above point of insertion of petiole into an inconspicuous or prominent ocrea; knees present in climbing stems; flagella present in climbers, whiplike and armed with small, grapnel-like spines; cirri present in few species (and then flagella absent, and vice versa); pinnae variously arranged and shaped, occasionally whitish or gray on abaxial surfaces. Plants dioecious. Inflorescences usually elongate, branched to 3 orders, male inflorescences more branched than female ones; branches and rachillae covered with overlapping bracts with clawed spines on outer surfaces in climbers; male flowers borne along opposite sides of rachillae; female flowers borne in pairs with a sterile male flower, along opposite sides of rachillae. Fruits mostly small, variously shaped and colored, usually 1-seeded, sometimes pedicellate, always covered with overlapping scales, these sometimes with a groove down middle; endosperm homogeneous or ruminate; germination adjacent; eophylls bifid or pinnate.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Leaflets narrow to broad or rhomboid (praemorse in one Australian species), single-fold, arranged regularly or irregularly on either side of the rachis or variously clustered, fanned or paired, variously hairy, scaly or spiny

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Rachis usually armed with reflexed hooks.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Seed with thick or thin, sweet or sour or very astringent sarcotesta and variously shaped hard diaspore; endosperm homogeneous or ruminate; embryo basal or lateral.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Stems very slender, only a few mm. in diameter to robust (15 cm. or more), in Africa moderate, 1–3 cm. in diameter, branching sympodially at the base

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Leaf-sheaths tightly enclosing the stem, variously armed with spines and spiculae or unarmed, often covered with indumentum; often continued into an ocrea of varying length (in Africa conspicuous)

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Female flower with calyx and corolla ± as in the ♂ flower; staminodes 6; ovary covered in vertical rows of reflexed scales and tipped with 3 stigmas; locules 3, incomplete, each with a single ovule, normally only 1 ovule developing

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Mature leaf of two kinds, either terminating in a long barbed whip (cirrus) or without such a whip (African and some Asiatic species), species without a cirrus normally but not always bearing a similar barbed whip (flagellum), adnate to the leaf-sheath at the base, equivalent to a modified sterile inflorescence.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Fruit variously shaped, tipped with the stigmatic remains, bearing persistent calyx and corolla basally, and covered in vertical rows of reflexed scales

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Petiole prominent or absent, variously armed with spines and hooks.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    In ♀ inflorescence flowers borne in pairs, a sterile ♂ (acolyte) together with a fertile ♀ and 2 bracteoles (‘involucrophore’ and ‘involucre’)

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Male flower symmetrical; calyx tubular, 3-lobed; corolla 3-lobed, divisions almost reaching the base; stamens 6, epipetalous, with free filaments; pistillode minute or absent. Sterile ♂ flower as the fertile ♂ but anthers empty.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Bracts variously armed, tubular, tightly sheathing, very rarely splitting, sometimes with an expanded limb, never caducous, though rarely tattering and decaying before fruiting; prophyll usually 2-keeled and empty; other bracts on main axis subtending close to very distant partial inflorescences; partial inflorescences bearing bracts subtending rachillae; rachillae usually with approximate tubular bracts, each, except for the one or more basalmost, subtending a flower or flower group.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Solitary or clustering, acaulescent to high-climbing pleonanthic dioecious palms

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    In ♂ inflorescence flowers solitary, borne together with a bracteole (‘involucre’)

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Inflorescence axillary, with the base of the peduncle adnate to the internode and sheath of the following leaf, hence appearing in a non-axillary position, branching to 2–4 orders, with or without a long terminal flagellum.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Included Species

      Bibliography

     Information From

    Arecaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • C
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • D CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).