Capsicum L.
  • (B. L. R. & Greenm.) M.Martínez and (B. L. R. & Greenm.) M.Martínez, Sp. Pl. 1: 188., 1753.
  • peppers


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2023): Capsicum L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000006624. Accessed on: 02 Feb 2023'

General Information

Shrubs or annual or perennial herbs; pubescence of simple hairs. Stems branched. Leaves solitary or paired, petiolate; leaf blade simple, entire or sinuate. Inflorescences solitary or few-flowered clusters at branch forks or leaf axils; peduncle absent. Flowers nodding or erect, actinomorphic. Pedicel erect or nodding. Calyx broadly campanulate to cup-shaped, denticulate, sometimes slightly enlarged. Corolla white, blue, or violet, campanulate or rotate, divided halfway or more. Stamens inserted near distal end of corolla tube; filaments slender; anthers yellow or purplish, ovoid, dehiscing longitudinally. Ovary 2- (or 3)- locular; ovules numerous. Style slender; stigma small, capitate. Fruit a moist berry, sometimes large, erect, nodding, or reflexed. Seeds yellowish, discoid; embryo coiled, subperipheral.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora of China @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    CAPSICUM L.

    Hierbas o arbustos, generalmente ramificados, a veces postrados, inermes, pubescencia de tricomas simples. Hojas solitarias o en pares, simples, mayormente ovadas o elípticas, enteras; pecioladas. Flores solitarias (raramente en pares) en las axilas de las hojas o en las dicotomías de las ramas 5-meras, actinomorfas, los pedicelos con una curvatura conspicua en la inserción del cáliz; cáliz cupuliforme, truncado, frecuentemente con dientes o umbones emergentes en los lados; corola campanulada, parcialmente lobada; filamentos insertos cerca de la base del tubo, anteras oblongas, frecuentemente azuladas, dehiscencia longitudinal; ovario 2-locular pero a veces con placentas múltiples. Fruto una baya carnosa, jugosa o seca, hueca en el centro, frecuentemente picante; semillas numerosas, discoides, 3.5–5 mm de diámetro, amarillas, cremas o negras, con el embrión enrollado.

    Género con ca 20 especies, mayormente de Sudamérica; 2 especies nativas o naturalizadas en Nicaragua, una de las cuales es una maleza. Además de los caracteres indicados en la clave, Capsicum se distingue de otras Solanaceae por tener una capa de células gigantescas dentro del ovario, la cual es visible con lupa de mano en un corte manual del fruto. Revised Oct 2013, AP.

    W.G. D'Arcy and W. H. Eshbaugh. 1975. New World peppers [Capsicum--Solanaceae] north of Colombia: A resumé. Baileya 19:94--105; C.B. Heiser and B. Pickersgill. 1975. Names for the bird peppers [Capsicum--Solanaceae]. Baileya 19: 151--156.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Erect or clambering short-lived perennial herbs; stems sometimes angled, glabrous or pubescent with simple, sometimes glandular hairs. Leaves simple, entire or weakly toothed, mostly ovate or elliptical; abruptly or gradually narrowed into a slightly winged petiole; minor leaves present or not. Inflorescence one or a few flowers fascicled in the leaf axil; the flowering pedicels mostly downward curved, erect or curved in fruit, sometimes angled. Flowers with the calyx cyathiform or short tubular, truncate or with 5 or 10 short teeth, sometimes accrescent but not enclosing the fruit, rarely with an annular thickening or ferrule around the base; the corolla small, yellow, white or bluish, sometimes spotted, deeply lobed; the stamens 5, equal, the filaments inserted at the base of the corolla tube, the anthers yellow or purple, dehiscing longitudinally; the ovary glabrous, 2-loculed, many-ovuled, the stigma puntiform or capitate. Fruit a dry, coriaceous to fleshy berry with large air spaces in the locules, bright purple, red, orange, yellow or white, comestible. Seeds flattened-lenticular, yellow (Panama), small; embryo curved around the periphery of the seed; the endosperm fleshy.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora de Panama
  • Herbs or subshrubs. Leaves simple, entire. Flowers actinomorphic, 5-merous, axillary, solitary or in cymes; calyx bell-shaped, toothed or truncate; corolla white, saucer-shaped, with spreading lobes; stamens 5, the filaments of equal length, adnate to the base of corolla, the anthers opening by longitudinal slits; ovary of 2 or 3 connate carpels, the placentation basal-axile with numerous ovules. Fruit a fleshy to leathery berry; seeds numerous, lenticular, flattened.

  • Provided by: [B].Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 13
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Annual or short-lived perennial herbs, rarely shrubby, often ± divaricately branched, unarmed, glabrous or pubescent with simple eglandular or glandular hairs.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Fruit a berry, extremely variable in size and shape, seated on a flat or cupular calyx and greatly exceeding it, juiceless or somewhat juicy, incompletely 2–3(or rarely 1)-locular, sometimes with large air spaces in the locules, usually acrid.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Calyx short, broadly campanulate to shortly tubular, 5(7)-ribbed, truncate, entire or 5(7)- or 10-dentate; teeth short, setaceous, often splitting at the sutures; in fruit usually slightly enlarged.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Seeds numerous, small, flat, compressed, suborbicular or ± reniform, with thickened margin; testa reticulate-rugose or almost smooth; embryo strongly curved or circinnate, subperipheral in the abundant, fleshy endosperm; radicle terete, as wide as the semi-terete cotyledons.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Corolla purple to bluish, yellowish, white or greenish, sometimes spotted, rotate to widely campanulate; tube short; limb plicate, deeply 5(7)-lobed, the lobes never overlapping in bud, with induplicate-valvate or valvate aestivation.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Leaves alternate, often 2 or 3 appearing together, mainly towards the ends of branches, abruptly or gradually tapering into a slightly winged petiole, mostly entire, to weakly dentate; minor leaves sometimes present.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Flowers 1–few, extra-axillary, leaf-opposed or appearing axillary, actinomorphic.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Stamens 5(7), variously inserted in the corolla tube, ± exserted; anthers oblong or cordate, connivent or free, basifixed, the ± parallel thecae dehiscing by longitudinal slits.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Ovary 2(4)-locular; ovules hemicampylotropous, numerous in each locule, on a placenta adnate to the dissepiment or arising from the central angle of 2 dissepiments at the base; style filiform; stigma capitate or slightly dilated, obsoletely 3-lobed or difformed.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Disk inconspicuous or none.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Habit

    herbs

  • Provided by: [D].Flora de Panama
  • Distribution

    A neotropical genus of about 25 species, cultivated throughout the world for its edible, often pungent peppery fruits.

  • Provided by: [B].Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 13
    • ]. 

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    peppers
    cirp Aji

     Information From

    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • A Missouri Botanical Garden
    Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden
    https://www.nybg.org/
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • B Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • C
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    W. D. Stevens, C. Ulloa Ulloa, A. Pool & O. M. Montiel. 2001–. Flora de Nicaragua, Tropicos Project. Loaded from Tropicos Project: October 2017
    • E Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora of China @ efloras.org
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
    Solanaceae
    Solanaceae. World Flora Online Data. 2022.
    • G CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online Consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • H CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).