Cardamine L.
  • Sp. Pl. 2: 654. 1753. (1 May 1753)
  • Bittercress [Greek kardamon, name for a cress]


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Cardamine L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000006656. Accessed on: 26 Sep 2021'

General Information

Herbs annual, biennial, or rhizomatous or tuberous perennial. Trichomes absent or simple. Stems erect or prostrate, leafy or rarely leafless and plant scapose. Basal leaves petiolate, rosulate or not, simple and entire, toothed, or 1-3-pinnatisect, or palmately lobed, sometimes trifoliolate, pinnately, palmately, or bipinnately compound. Cauline leaves alternate, (rarely opposite or whorled), simple or compound as basal leaves, petiolate or sessile and base cuneate, attenuate, auriculate, or sagittate, margin entire, dentate, or variously lobed. Racemes ebracteate or rarely bracteate throughout or only basally, corymbose or in panicles, elongated in fruit. Fruiting pedicels slender or thickened, erect, divaricate, or reflexed. Sepals ovate or oblong, base of lateral pair saccate or not, margin often membranous. Petals white, pink, purple, or violet, never yellow, rarely absent; blade obovate, spatulate, oblong, or oblanceolate, apex obtuse or emarginate; claw absent or strongly differentiated from blade, longer or shorter than sepals. Stamens 6 and tetradynamous, rarely 4 and equal in length; anthers ovate, oblong, or linear, obtuse at apex. Nectar glands confluent and subtending bases of all stamens; median glands 2 or rarely 4 or absent; lateral glands annular or semiannular. Ovules 4-50 per ovary. Fruit dehiscent siliques, linear or rarely narrowly oblong or narrowly lanceolate, latiseptate, sessile; valves papery, not veined, glabrous (or very rarely hairy), smooth or torulose, dehiscing elastically acropetally, spirally or circinately coiled; replum strongly flattened; septum complete, membranous, translucent; style distinct or rarely obsolete; stigma capitate, entire. Seeds uniseriate, wingless, rarely margined or winged, oblong or ovate, flattened; seed coat smooth, minutely reticulate, colliculate, or rugose; mucilaginous or not when wetted; cotyledons accumbent or very rarely incumbent.

  • Provided by: [I].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    12. Cardamine L.

    Por I.A.Al-Shehbaz y S.Fuentes-Soriano.

    Hierbas anuales o perennes. Tricomas ausentes o simples.Hojas basales pecioladas, arrosetadas o no arrosetadas, simples o compuestas;hojas caulinares, simples o compuestas, la base auriculada o no auriculada,pecioladas o sésiles. Racimos ebracteados o rara vez bracteados al menosbasalmente, alargados en fruto. Sépalos ovados u oblongos, la base del parlateral sacciforme o no sacciforme; pétalos obovados, espatulados, oblongos uoblanceolados, blancos, rosados, de color púrpura o violeta, el ápice obtuso oemarginado; estambres 6, tetradínamos, rara vez 4, iguales en longitud;nectarios confluentes y subyacentes a las bases de todos los estambres, 2mediales, rara vez 4 o ausentes; óvulos 4-50 por ovario. Silicuas dehiscentes,lineares o rara vez angostamente oblongas o angostamente lanceoladas, latiseptas;valvas con dehiscencia elástica; replo marcadamente aplanado; septo completo;estilo conspicuo o rara vez obsoleto; estigma capitado, entero; semillasuniseriadas, oblongas u ovadas, aplanadas, mucilaginosas o no cuando se humedecen;cotiledones acumbentes o muy rara vez incumbentes. Aprox. 200 spp. Cosmopolita,excepto en Antárctica.

    Bibliografía: Schulz, O.E. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 32: 280-623 (1903). Sjöstedt, B.J. Bot.Not. 128: 8-19 (1975).

  • Provided by: [E].Flora Mesoamericana
    • Source: [
    • 12
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Annuals, biennials, or perennials; (perennials usually rhizomatous, sometimes tuberiform, stolons present in C. flagellifera, caudex present in C. bellidifolia); not scapose (subscapose in C. bellidifolia); glabrous or pubescent. Stems erect, ascending, decumbent, or prostrate, unbranched or branched. Leaves: cauline, rhizomal, or basal; rhizomal and basal rosulate or not, petiolate, blade margins entire, toothed, or 1-3-pinnatisect, or palmately lobed, sometimes trifoliolate, pinnately, palmately, or bipinnately compound (leaflets petiolulate, subsessile, or sessile); cauline (usually alternate, rarely opposite or whorled) petiolate or sessile, blade (base cuneate, attenuate, or auriculate to sagittate), margins entire, dentate, or variously lobed, (leaflets petiolulate or sessile). Racemes (corymbose or paniculate, bracteate in C. pattersonii), elongated in fruit. Fruiting pedicels erect, ascending, divaricate, or reflexed, slender or stout. Flowers: sepals (caducous), usually erect, rarely spreading or ascending, ovate or oblong, lateral pair saccate or not basally, (usually glabrous, rarely pubescent); petals (rarely absent), white, pink, purple, or lilac, obovate, spatulate, or oblanceolate, claw absent or strongly differentiated from blade, (apex obtuse, rounded, emarginate, or subemarginate); stamens (6, rarely 4), equal in length; filaments not dilated basally; anthers ovate, oblong, or linear, (apex obtuse), glabrous [rarely pubescent]; nectar glands confluent, lateral glands annular or semiannular, subtending bases of stamens, median glands present (2, rarely 4) or absent. Fruits siliques, sessile, usually linear, rarely narrowly oblong or narrowly lanceolate, smooth or torulose, latiseptate; valves (papery, elastically dehiscent, becoming spirally or circinately coiled) each not veined, glabrous or, rarely, pubescent; replum strongly flattened; septum complete, (membranous); ovules 4-80 per ovary; style usually distinct, rarely obsolete; stigma capitate. Seeds uniseriate, flattened, usually not winged, rarely margined or winged, oblong, ovoid, or globose; seed coat (smooth, minutely reticulate, colliculate, or rugose) mucilaginous or not when wetted; cotyledons accumbent, rarely incumbent. x = 7, 8.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 14
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    Perennial or less frequently annual herbs, pubescent with simple trichomes or glabrous; stems leafy, the leaves petiolate and usually pinnately compound; in- florescence racemose, ebracteate or the lower flowers bracteate; petals spatulate to obovate, white to pink; siliques linear, compressed parallel to the replum, dehiscent by linear, often elastic, valves, tapering at apex to a cylindrical style; stigma usually 2-lobed; seeds emarginate or rarely very narrowly winged.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora de Panama
  • "Sep erect, obtuse; pet white to pink or purple, or rarely none; stamens in some spp. fewer than 6; short stamens subtended by a semicircular gland; anthers oblong; ovary cylindric, gradually tapering to the short, slender style; stigma truncate or nearly so; fr linear, terete or quadrangular, straight, many-seeded, tipped with the persistent style, which in the Dentaria group commonly forms an evident, slender beak 6–8 mm; persistent frame of the replum relatively broad or slightly wing-margined; seeds in a single row in each locule, flattened, wingless; annual to perennial herbs with simple to pinnately or palmately compound or trifid (even biternate) lvs; pubescence none or of simple hairs. 200, cosmop. (Dentaria)"

  • Provided by: [H].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
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    Morphology

    Seeds 1-seriate, smooth or finely tuberculate.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
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    Silique laterally compressed, often opening explosively, the valves coiling spirally from the base.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
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    Cotyledons accumbent.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
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    Stamens 6 (4).

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
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    Flowers white or purple in terminal, subumbellate racemes.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Leaves simple, trifoliolate or pinnate.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
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    Annual or perennial herbs.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
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    Inner sepals not or scarcely saccate.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
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    Petals 4, occasionally absent.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
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    Fruit a siliqua, dehiscent, linear, straight, tapered towards the narrow style, disrupting explosively by the valves coiling from the base upwards; replum swollen; valves without prominent nerves

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 10
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    Seeds uniseriate, flattened, usually broadly elliptic to oblong, minutely rugose to colliculate, not mucilaginous.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Petals white, cream, violet or purple, spathulate to clawed, sometimes lacking

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 10
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    Stamens 6–4, rarely fewer; filaments linear to subulate

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Nectaries horseshoe-shaped or a closed ring-shaped tissue around the lateral stamens and usually as a conical gland outside each median pair of stamens

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 10
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    Ovary cylindrical, usually with a short narrower style; stigma flat; ovules 4–40

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 10
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    Stems erect, ascending, sometimes basally rooting

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 10
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    Racemes mostly terminal, ebracteate, densely to laxly corymbose, with a few-numerous small to medium-sized flowers, in fruit at least basally elongate and lax

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 10
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    Annual, biennial or perennial small to large herbs, with a taproot and often with creeping or tuberous rhizomes

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 10
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    Hairs often present, unicellular, simple

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 10
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    Sepals not saccate, not spreading, margins hyaline

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 10
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    Plantes herbacées'annuelles, bisannuelles ou vivaces, à racines souvent rhizomateuses et parfois tubérisées, pubescentes à poils simples; tiges simples ou ramifiées.'Feuilles'simples, trifoliolées ou pennées, alternes parfois opposées ou verticillées.'Racèmes'subombellés et s'allongeant peu à la fructification.'Fleurs'à sépales obliques, oblongs à ovales; pétales obovales, onguiculés à la base ou manquants; étamines 6 ou moins; anthères oblongues, obtuses au sommet; ovaire subsessile, cylindrique; style court; stigmate ± bilobé.'Siliques'à pédicelle ascendant, dressées et souvent subombellées, linéaires-oblongues, aplaties; valves planes, élastiques et s'enroulant en spirale de bas en haut à maturité, à nervure médiane peu marquée.'Graines sur 1 rang, à testa lisse ou finement tuberculé; embryon à cotylédons plans; radicule latérale (o =).\n\t\t\t\tGenre comprenant environ 130 espèces habitant principalement les régions tempérées et froides surtout dans les stations fraîches et humides et dont quelques-unes se rencontrent sur les montagnes tropicales.

  • Provided by: [J].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    • Source: [
    • 18
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    Habit

    herbs

  • Provided by: [G].Flora de Panama
  • Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES Detling, L. E. 1936. The genus Dentaria in the Pacific states. Amer. J. Bot. 23: 570-576. Detling, L. E. 1937. The Pacific coast species of Cardamine. Amer. J. Bot. 24: 70-76. Franzke, A. and H. Hurka. 2000. Molecular systematics and biogeography of the Cardamine pratensis complex (Brassicaceae). Pl. Syst. Evol. 224: 213-234. Franzke, A. et al. 1998. Molecular systematics of Cardamine and allied genera (Brassicaceae): ITS and non-coding chloroplast DNA. Folia Geobot. 33: 225-240. Harriman, N. A. 1965. The Genus Dentaria L. (Cruciferae) in Eastern North America. Ph.D. dissertation. Vanderbilt University. Hart, T. W. and W. H. Eshbaugh. 1976. The biosystematics of Cardamine bulbosa (Muhl.) B.S.P. and C. douglasii Britt. Rhodora 78: 329-419. Lihová, J. and K. Marhold. 2006. Phylogenetic and diversity patterns in Cardamine (Brassicaceae)—A genus with conspicuous polyploid and reticulate evolution. In: A. K. Sharma and A. Sharma, eds. 2003+. Plant Genome: Biodiversity and Evolution. 2+ vols. in parts. Enfield, N.H. Vol. 1, part C, pp. 149-186. Lihová, J., K. Marhold, H. Kudoh, and M. Koch. 2006. Worldwide phylogeny and biogeography of Cardamine flexuosa (Brassicaceae) and its relatives. Amer. J. Bot. 93: 1206-1221. Lövkvist, B. 1956. The Cardamine pratensis complex—Outlines of its cytogenetics and taxonomy. Symb. Bot. Upsal. 14(2): 1-131. Montgomery, F. H. 1955. Preliminary studies in the genus Dentaria in eastern North America. Rhodora 57: 161-173. Schulz, O. E. 1903. Monographie der Gattung Cardamine. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 32: 280-623. Sweeney, P. W. and R. A. Price. 2000. Polyphyly of the genus Dentaria (Brassicaceae): Evidence from trnL intron and ndhF sequence data. Syst. Bot. 25: 468-478.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 14
    • ]. 

    Included Species

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Bittercress [Greek kardamon, name for a cress]

      Bibliography

     Information From

    Brassicaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • C
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • D Flora of North America Association
    Flora Mesoamericana
    http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/fm/
    Gerrit Davidse, Mario Sousa Sánchez, A. O. Chater, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Instituto de Biología, Missouri Botanical Garden, Natural History Museum (London, England) UNAM, 1994
    • E Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • F
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • G Missouri Botanical Garden
    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • H Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • I Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    https://www.floredafriquecentrale.be
    • J http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • K CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).