Castanea Mill.
  • Gard. Dict. Abr. (ed. 4) 1: vol. 1. 1754.
  • Chestnut, châtaignier [Classical Latin, from Greek kastanaion karuon, nut from Castania, probably referring either to Kastanaia in Pontus or Castana in Thessaly]


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Castanea Mill. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000006925. Accessed on: 28 Sep 2021'

General Information

Trees or rarely shrubs, deciduous. Bark furrowed. Axillary buds of most apical leaves in false-terminal buds, usually enclosed by 2 outer scales, imbricate within. Leaves spirally arranged but twisted and appearing 2-ranked; secondary veins ± parallel. Male inflorescences erect catkins; flowers in clusters of 1-3(-5) with each cluster subtended by a bract; perianth 6-parted; stamens 10-12(-20); rudimentary pistil pubescent. Female flowers borne on proximal part of androgynous inflorescences, rarely on a separate inflorescence, usually 3 and subtended by 1 symmetric cupule; ovary 6-9-loculed; styles 6-9; stigmas terminal, minutely punctiform. Cupules splitting into 2-4 valves; bracts spinelike. Nuts 1-3 per cupule. Germination hypogeal.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Trees or shrubs , winter-deciduous, sometimes rhizomatous. Terminal buds absent, pseudoterminal bud (axillary bud of youngest leaf) ovoid, with 2 unequal opposite outer scales enclosing several imbricate inner scales. Leaves: stipules prominent on new growth, soon deciduous. Leaf blade thin, somewhat leathery, secondary veins unbranched, ±parallel, extending to margin, each vein ending in sharp tooth or well-developed awn. Inflorescences staminate or androgynous, axillary, spicate, erect, rigid or flexible; androgynous inflorescences with pistillate cupules/flowers toward base and staminate flowers distally. Staminate flowers: sepals distinct; stamens 12(-18), typically surrounding indurate pistillode covered with silky hairs. Pistillate flowers 1-3 per cupule; sepals distinct; carpels and styles typically 6(-9). Fruits: maturation in 1st year following pollination (termed annual by many authors); cupule 2-4-valved, valves connate marginally until maturity, ±completely enclosing nut(s), spiny, spines irregularly branched, often interlocking, densely or sparsely covered in simple hairs; nuts 1-3 per cupule, plano-convex, or if 3, then central nut often reduced and flattened, or if solitary, then often rounded in cross section, not winged, adjacent nuts not separated by internal cupule valves. x = 12.

    • Provided by: [C].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
      • Source: [
      • 1
      • ]. 

      Literature

      SELECTED REFERENCES

      Hardin, J. W. and G. P. Johnson. 1985. Atlas of foliar surface features in woody plants, VIII. Fagus and Castanea (Fagaceae) of eastern North America. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 112: 11-20. Johnson, G. P. 1988. Revision of Castanea sect. Balanocastanon (Fagaceae). J. Arnold Arbor. 69: 25-49. Paillet, F. L. 1993. Growth form and life histories of American chestnut and Allegheny and Ozark chinquapin at various North American sites. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 120: 257-268. Paillet, F. L. and P. A. Rutter. 1989. Replacement of native oak and hickory tree species by the introduced American chestnut Castanea dentata in southwestern Wisconsin, USA. Canad. J. Bot. 67: 3457-3469. Tucker, G. E. 1975. Castanea pumila var. ozarkensis (Ashe) Tucker, comb. nov. Proc. Arkansas Acad. Sci. 29: 67-69.

    • Provided by: [C].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
      • Source: [
      • 1
      • ]. 

      Other Local Names

      NameLanguageCountry
      Chestnut, châtaignier [Classical Latin, from Greek kastanaion karuon, nut from Castania, probably referring either to Kastanaia in Pontus or Castana in Thessaly]

       Information From

      Fagaceae
      World Flora Online Data. 2017.
      • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
      Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
      http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
      'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
      • B Missouri Botanical Garden
      Flora of North America @ efloras.org
      http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
      'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
      • C Flora of North America Association
      World Flora Online consortium
      http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
      World Flora Online Data. 2018.
      • D CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).