Celastrus L.
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 196. 1753. (1 May 1753)
  • Bittersweet [Greek kelastros, ancient name for holly, Ilex aquifolium]


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Celastrus L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000007124. Accessed on: 27 Oct 2021'

General Information

1. Celastrus L., nom. cons.

Por F.R. Barrie.

Arbustos escandentes o bejucos (en Mesoamérica), glabros.Hojas alternas, coriáceas, los márgenes subenteros o serrulados o crenulados;estípulas inconspicuas, ciliadas o aciculares. Inflorescencias terminales oaxilares, racemosas o paniculadas o las flores solitarias; flores generalmenteunisexuales, las plantas monoicas o dioicas, rara vez con flores hermafroditas,el cáliz urceolado o atenuado basalmente, los lobos 5; pétalos 5, blancos;disco 5-lobado, carnoso; estambres 5, insertos entre los lobos del disco;ovario 3-locular, los óvulos 1 o 2 por lóculo; el estilo corto, robusto. Cápsulassubglobosas a oblongas, con frecuencia marcadamente 3-lobadas; dehiscencialoculicida, las 3 valvas patentes o reflexas al madurar, exponiendo lassemillas; semillas 1 (en Mesoamérica) a 3, envueltas total o parcialmente porun arilo conspicuo. Aprox. 30 spp., 2 en Mesoamérica; Asia, Europa, Norteaméricay Sudamérica.

Las especies mesoamericanas pertenecen a Celastrus subgen.Racemocelastrus Ding Hou, que se caracteriza por las floreshermafroditas dispuestas en inflorescencias racemosas o paniculadas. Elsubgénero es endémico de Centroamérica y Sudamérica.

Bibliografía: Ding Hou, Ann.Missouri Bot. Gard. 42: 215-302 (1955).

  • Provided by: [G].Flora Mesoamericana
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    CELASTRUS L.

    Celastrus vulcanicola Donn. Sm., Bot. Gaz. (Crawfordsville) 61: 373. 1916.

    Bejucos glabros, ramas con lenticelas conspicuas; plantas hermafroditas. Hojas alternas, 5.1–9.4 cm de largo y 2.2–3.5 cm de ancho, agudas en el ápice, obtusas, cuneadas o agudas en la base, nervios 6–7 a cada lado, conspicuos; pecíolo 3–7 mm de largo. Inflorescencia racemosa axilar, solitaria o fasciculada, 2.5–4.5 cm de largo, 8–12 flores, pedicelos 2–3 mm de largo; cáliz 5-segmentado, segmentos ovados, 2 mm de largo, obtusos; pétalos 5, oblongos, 1.5 mm de largo y 0.8 mm de ancho, obtusos; estambres 5, insertados en un disco sinuoso, más cortos que los pétalos, filamentos alesnados, anteras basifijas; ovario asentado en el disco, pero no inmerso, 3-locular, estilo corto y grueso, estigma 3-lobado. Fruto una cápsula ovada, 1.5–1.8 cm de largo, algunas veces emarginada en la base, dehiscente por 3 valvas; semilla 1, arilo rojo o anaranjado.

    Poco común en nebliselvas, zona norcentral; 1300–1550 m; fl y fr ene–nov; Molina 22974, Williams 27866; México (Chiapas) a Nicaragua. El holótipo (F) y 2 isótipos (US, EAP) de Celastrus molinae L.O. Williams ( Williams 23415, Matagalpa) no pudieron ser localizados. La descripción de la inflorescencia como panículas cimosas sugiere que pudiera tratarse de Celastrus liebmannii Standl., conocida de las regiones altas desde México hasta Costa Rica. Género con ca 30 especies o más, principalmente distribuido en el Viejo Mundo, pero también representado en las Américas.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Scandent shrubs. Leaves deciduous, alternate, petiolate. Inflorescences di- chasial, paniculate to racemose, solitary, axillary and/or terminal, pedunculate or sessile; pedicels articulated. Flowers usually unisexual and plants dioecious (bisexual in the Latin American species); calyx 5-lobed; petals 5; disc cup-shaped or fleshy and flat, entire or 5-lobed, stamens 5; ovary superior, free from the disc, 3-loculed, each 1-ovuled (in the Latin American species), ovules attached at the base of the ovary with a distinct cup-shaped aril towards the base. Fruit a capsule, 1- to 6-seeded; seeds enclosed in a fleshy crimson aril.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Vines, . Branchlets terete. Leaves deciduous [persistent], alternate; stipules present; petiole present; blade margins denticulate; venation pinnate. Inflorescences terminal or axillary, panicles or cymes [racemes]. Flowers bisexual and unisexual, radially symmetric; perianth and androecium hypogynous; hypanthium absent; sepals 5, distinct; petals 5, white or greenish white; nectary intrastaminal, fleshy. Bisexual flowers: stamens 5, free from and inserted under nectary; staminodes 0; pistil 3-carpellate; ovary superior, 3-locular; placentation axile; style 1; stigmas 3; ovules 2 per locule. Staminate flowers: stamens 5; free from and inserted under nectary; staminodes 0; pistillode present. Pistillate flowers: staminodes 5, alternate with petals, undivided, not gland-tipped, ; pistil 3-carpellate; ovary superior, 3-locular, placentation axile; style 1; stigmas 3; ovules 2 per locule. Fruits capsules, 3-locular, globose or subglobose, 3-lobed distally, apex not beaked. Seeds [1–]2 per locule, ellipsoid, not winged; aril red, completely surrounding seed. x = 23.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Scandent to twining shrubs, deciduous or evergreen, glabrous or pubescent, with oblong or circular gray lenticels; bud scales imbricate. Leaves alternate, subentire or serrate; stipules small, linear, deciduous. Inflorescences axillary or terminal, cymose, thyrsoid, or flowers solitary. Flowers unisexual, rarely bisexual, rarely dioecious, 5-merous, greenish or yellowish white. Disk membranous or fleshy, annular to cupuliform, entire or slightly 5-lobed, intrastaminal; anthers longitudinally dehiscent, introrse. Ovary 3-locular, separate from or slightly adnate to disk; ovules erect, 1 or 2 per locule. Capsule globose, yellowish, leathery, loculicidally dehiscent. Seeds 1-6, ellipsoid, enclosed in aril; aril carnose, red to orange-red.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    "Dioecious or polygamo-dioecious; fls 5-merous, the staminate with 5 stamens about as long as the pet, inserted on the margin of the cup-shaped disk, and with a vestigial pistil, the pistillate with vestigial stamens and a well developed ovary, stout columnar style, and 3-lobed stigma; ovules 2 per locule, collateral; fr 3-valved, each valve covering 1 or 2 seeds completely enclosed in a fleshy red aril; woody twiners with deciduous, alternate, serrulate lvs and small whitish or greenish fls. 30, mostly trop."

  • Provided by: [E].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Habit

    shrubs

  • Provided by: [B].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Distribution

    About 31 species distributed chiefly in tropical and subtropical Asia and America.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES Hou, D. 1955. A revision of the genus Celastrus. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 42: 215–302. Leicht-Young, S. A. et al. 2007. Distinguishing native (Celastrus scandens L.) and invasive (C. orbiculatus Thunb.) bittersweet species using morphological characteristics. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 134: 441–450. Pooler, M. R., R. L. Dix, and J. Feely. 2002. Interspecific hybridizations between the native bittersweet, Celastrus scandens, and the introduced invasive species, C. orbiculatus. SouthE. Naturalist 1: 69–76.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Synonyms

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Bittersweet [Greek kelastros, ancient name for holly, Ilex aquifolium]

     Information From

    Celastraceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • C Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • E Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • F Flora of North America Association
    Flora Mesoamericana
    http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/fm/
    Gerrit Davidse, Mario Sousa Sánchez, A. O. Chater, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Instituto de Biología, Missouri Botanical Garden, Natural History Museum (London, England) UNAM, 1994
    • G Missouri Botanical Garden
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • H CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).