Shrubs or trees, glabrous or pubescent with simple or branched hairs. Leaves solitary, simple, petiolate, entire. Inflorescences terminal or axillary, racemose or paniculate, sometimes clustered in leaf axils, often bracteate or bracteolate. Flowers 5-merous. Calyx campanulate or tubular. Corolla long tubular; tube sometimes expanded or contracted around anthers, sometimes pubescent abaxially; limb lobed, usually spreading. Stamens inserted at various levels in corolla tube; filaments sometimes pubescent or appendaged at or below point of insertion; anthers dehiscing longitudinally; disc mostly evident. Ovary 2-locular; ovules few to several, rarely to 20. Style slender; stigma entire or 2-lobed, rarely exserted. Fruit a berry, mostly white or blackish, globose, ovoid, or oblong, often juicy. Seeds 1 or several, oblong; embryo straight or slightly curved; cotyledons ovate, oblong and much wider than radicle, or cylindric.
Arbustos o raramente árboles pequeños o escandentes, inermes, pubescencia de tricomas simples o dendríticos. Hojas frecuentemente fétidas, mayormente solitarias con las hojas menores mayormente ausentes, simples, enteras; pecioladas. Inflorescencias paniculadas, racemosas o fasciculadas, apareciendo axilares o terminales, con (1)muchas flores, pedúnculos a veces alargados y muy ramificados, las últimas divisiones a veces parecidas a pedicelos, pedicelos presentes u obsoletos, brácteas a veces foliosas pero mayormente escuamiformes y abrazando la flor, frecuentemente persistentes, flores frecuentemente con olor nocturno, subactinomorfas, 5-meras; cáliz cupuliforme a campanulado, a veces urceolado, lobos mayormente deltoides; corola tubular, lobos angostamente triangulares, patentes; filamentos iguales o subiguales, insertos a varios niveles dentro del tubo de la corola, a veces hinchados, dentados, o pubescentes cerca del punto de inserción, anteras inclusas, con dehiscencia longitudinal; ovario 2-locular, con varios a muchos óvulos, estilo inserto o ligeramente exerto. Baya frecuentemente ovoide o subglobosa, mayormente jugosa, blanca o negro-purpúreo obscura, cáliz rara vez acrescente; semillas 1pocas, angulares.
Género con ca 175 especies ampliamente distribuidas en las regiones cálidas de América; 12 especies se conocen en Nicaragua. Unas pocas especies se cultivan como plantas ornamentales.
P. Francey. Monographie du genre Cestrum L. Candollea 6: 46398, 7: 1132. 1936.
Unarmed shrubs or trees to 12 m tall with simple or dendritic hairs, some species glabrous; trunks not exceeding 15 cm d.b.h.; twigs glabrous to velutinous, mostly slender. Leaves simple and entire, pinnately nerved, mostly glabrous above and variously pubescent beneath, mostly short petiolate; minor leaves present or not. Inflorescence axillary, sometimes appearing terminal, often bracteate, mostly a congested raceme or panicle but occasionally open or solitary and sessile; pedicels short, bracteolate. Flowers sometimes nocturnally opening and scented; calyx cyathiform to tubular, variously pubescent, lobed less than halfway down, the lobes sometimes unequal, not much accrescent in fruit; corolla tubular or salverform, often slightly zygomorphic, the tube obconical or with a
bulge along its length, the lobes short, often recurved, the location of pubescence often characteristic for species; stamens 5, equal or subequal, filaments inserted along the corolla tube, variously pubescent, geniculate or appendaged, the anthers clustered, included, bithecate, dehiscent longitudinally; ovary on a small glandular disc or short stipe, glabrous, 2-loculed with 4-50 ovules, the stigma included or exserted, small. Fruit a short-stipitate, fleshy or juicy berry, rarely with one or two apical sutures; seeds variable in shape and size; embryo straight or somewhat curved in fleshy endosperm.
Cymes axillary or sometimes appearing terminal, extended, racemiform to more often shortened, corymbiform, spiciform or fasciculiform, sometimes combined into terminal, paniculiform inflorescences; bracts and bracteoles often present.
Flowers (4)5(6)-merous, actinomorphic, occasionally slightly zygomorphic, usually shortly pedicellate, sometimes opening at night.
Calyx shorter than the corolla tube, tubular to campanulate or cupular, 5-dentate to deeply divided, the lobes subequal or occasionally unequal, usually shorter than the tube, with valvate aestivation, persistent in fruit, not very accrescent.
Fruit blackish to violaceous, sometimes reddish, rarely white, shortly stipitate, baccaceous, ± globose or ovoid to obovoid, fleshy or juicy, (1)2(4)-locular, indehiscent, rarely with 1–2 apical sutures.
Erect or drooping shrubs or small trees, sometimes scandent, glabrous to tomentose with simple or branched hairs.
Seeds few or solitary by abortion, variable in shape and size, compressed, dorsally convex, the internal face angular; testa often nearly smooth; embryo orbicular, ovate or oblong in outline, usually thick, straight or somewhat curved in the axis of the fleshy endosperm, with the terete radicle inferior, much narrower (or scarcely so) than the small, compressed, foliaceous, often semi-terete cotyledons.
Leaves solitary, alternate, rarely in pairs, mostly shortly petiolate, ± entire, often gradually passing into bracts; pseudostipules often present in the axils.
Ovary on a short, stout stipe or subsessile, ovoid or globose, 2(rarely only incompletely)-locular, the middle dissepiment with subglobose placentas, the ovules few–many in each locule, hemitropous; style filiform, usually with minute glands upwards; stigma small, ± capitate, subpeltate, concave or 2-lobed, rarely clavate, included or exserted.
Disk glandular, rather thick or membranous and cupular, occasionally inconspicuous.
Stamens equal or subequal, attached from the middle or higher within the corolla tube and running downwards as ridges, very rarely totally free, mostly included; free part of filaments filiform, often thickened, geniculate or appendaged at or near the base, variously pubescent to glabrous; anthers short, ± globose or obcordate in outline, medifixed, the thecae ± parallel, dehiscing by longitudinal slits.
Corolla deep yellow to reddish or purplish, rarely greenish-white or white, often very fragrant, sometimes only so at night, tubular-infundibuliform, salviform or somewhat trumpet-shaped, the tube sometimes obconical or with a bulge, often constricted to bladdery at the throat; limb short, regularly revolute, 5-lobed to deeply divided, subplicate, the lobes short, often with involute, tomentose or pubescent margins, spreading or reflexed, with valvate or induplicate-valvate aestivation.