Chloris Sw.
  • Prodr. 1, 25. 1788.


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Chloris Sw. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000007992. Accessed on: 24 Oct 2021'

General Information

90. Chloris Sw.

Por R.W. Pohl.

Anuales o perennes, cespitosas o estoloníferas. Tallos sólidos, glabros. Vainas carinadas; lígula una membrana generalmente ciliolada; láminas lineares, aplanadas o plegadas. Inflorescencia de 1 o más verticilos de espigas unilaterales, raramente de 1 espiga, las espiguillas sésiles, adpresas o pectinadas en 2 hileras sobre los lados inferiores del raquis. Espiguillas comprimidas lateralmente, generalmente con 1 flósculo bisexual y 1 o 2 flósculos estériles o raramente estaminados; desarticulación arriba de las glumas; glumas subiguales o la inferior más corta que la superior, más cortas que el flósculo fértil, membranáceas, 1-nervias, carinadas, agudas o acuminadas; lema fértil membranácea o cartilaginosa, carinada, 3-nervia, emarginada o 2-fida, generalmente aristada desde el ápice o justo debajo del ápice, las nervaduras marginales generalmente pilosas, la quilla pilosa o glabra; callo piloso; raquilla prolongada por encima del flósculo fértil y portando los flósculos rudimentarios; lodículas 2, adnatas a la pálea; estambres 3; estilos 2. Fruto una cariopsis; embrión 1/3-2/3 la longitud de la cariopsis; hilo punteado. Aprox. 55 spp. Climas cálidos del Nuevo y Viejo Mundo.

Bibliografía: Anderson, D.E. Brigham Young Univ. Sci. Bull., Biol. Ser. 19: 1-133 (1974).

  • Provided by: [G].Flora Mesoamericana
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • 1
    • ]. 

    CHLORIS Sw.

    Por Richard W. Pohl

    Anuales o perennes, cespitosas o estoloníferas; tallos sólidos, glabros; plantas hermafroditas. Vainas carinadas; lígula una membrana generalmente ciliolada; láminas lineares, aplanadas o plegadas. Inflorescencia de 1 o más verticilos de espigas unilaterales, raramente de 1 espiga, las espiguillas sésiles, adpresas o pectinadas en 2 hileras sobre los lados inferiores del raquis; espiguillas comprimidas lateralmente, generalmente con 1 flósculo bisexual y 1 ó 2 flósculos estériles o raramente estaminados; desarticulación arriba de las glumas; glumas subiguales o la inferior más corta que la superior, más cortas que el flósculo fértil, membranáceas, 1-nervias, carinadas, agudas o acuminadas; lema fértil membranácea o cartilaginosa, carinada, 3-nervia, emarginada o bífida, generalmente aristada desde el ápice o justo debajo del ápice, las nervaduras marginales generalmente pilosas, la quilla pilosa o glabra; callo piloso; raquilla prolongada por encima del flósculo fértil y con flósculos rudimentarios; lodículas 2, adnadas a la pálea; estambres 3; estilos 2. Fruto una cariopsis; embrión 1/3–2/3 la longitud de la cariopsis; hilo punteado.

    Género con ca 55 especies de climas cálidos del Nuevo y Viejo Mundo; 6 especies se encuentran en Nicaragua y una adicional se espera encontrar.

    D.E. Anderson. Taxonomy of the genus Chloris (Gramineae). Brigham Young Univ. Sci. Bull., Biol. Ser. 19: 1–133. 1974.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Spikelets subsessile in two rows on one side of the rachis, with one perfect floret, the rachilla articulate above the glumes, prolonged beyond the fertile floret, and bearing a narrow or club-shaped rudiment composed of one or more reduced sterile lemmas; glumes narrow, 1-nerved (rarely 3-nerved), the second a little longer than the first; fertile lemma 3-nerved, awned from the back just below the usually acute tip, the callus more or less bearded on the sides, the keel glabrous or sparsely pilose, the margins usually ciliate, the hairs on the upper part often much longer than the rest.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Annuals or perennials, with rhizomes or stolons. Basal leaf sheaths rounded or keeled; leaf blades linear, flat or folded; ligule a short ciliolate membrane. Inflorescence of racemes, digitate or occasionally in 2 or more whorls; spikelets shortly pedicelled or subsessile, closely imbricate, biseriate. Spikelets laterally compressed, florets 2–4, lowermost fertile, successive florets male or sterile and progressively reduced, disarticulating above glumes; glumes unequal, usually shorter than florets, lanceolate, membranous, 1-veined, acuminate to an awn-point; callus bearded; lemma of fertile floret keeled, lanceolate to obovate, cartilaginous to leathery, usually ciliate on margins and keel, apex entire or emarginate, subapically mucronate or awned; palea as long as lemma; subsequent florets similar to fertile floret or of different shape or vestigial. Caryopsis ellipsoid to subterete, pericarp free though sometimes reluctantly so. x = 10.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 12
    • ]. 

    Hierbas cespitosas a estoloníferas. Hojas con la vaina carinada; lígula una membrana, ciliolada; lámina li-near, aplanada a plegada. Infl. subdigitada, compuesta por verticilos de espigas unilaterales. Espiguillas com-primidas lateralmente; desarticulación arriba de las glumas; glumas subiguales, 1-nervadas; raquilla prolongadapor encima del flósculo fértil y que porta los flósculos rudimentarios; flósculo 1 bisexual y 2 ó más estériles (orara vez estaminados); lema fértil carinada, trinervada, aristada; pálea con las lodículas adnatas.

  • Provided by: [H].Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
  • "Spikelets with 1 perfect fl and 1 or more empty lemmas, articulated above the glumes, sessile in 2 rows on 2 sides of a slender triangular rachis; glumes small, unequal, the first 1-veined, the second 1- or 3-veined; lemmas unequal, the lowest fertile, compressed and keeled, usually awned just below the tip, 3-veined, the lateral veins marginal; second lemma smaller, sterile, usually truncate or inflated, awned or awnless; other lemmas, if present, still smaller and mostly concealed within the second; usually tufted, bearing several elongate spikes in a terminal digitate cluster. 40, warm reg."

  • Provided by: [E].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 14
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Caryopsis ovoid, ellipsoid or obovoid, usually trigonous in section.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Spikelets 2–4(6)-flowered, shortly pedicelled or subsessile, alternate in 2 rows on a tough axis, disarticulating above the glumes; glumes unequal, membranous, narrowly elliptic to lanceolate in profile, 1-nerved, acute, acuminate or with an awn-point, usually persistent; floret callus rounded or pungent; lowermost floret fertile; fertile lemma cartilaginous, laterally compressed and keeled, 3-nerved, usually ciliate on the margins and keel, entire or 2-lobed at the apex, with a subapical awn; 2nd–6th florets sterile, sometimes the second male or rarely fertile, embraced by or projecting from the side of the fertile floret; lemmas ± reduced or vestigial, awned or awnless, usually without a palea.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Inflorescence of few to many slender, typically digitate racemes, rarely these borne along an elongated axis.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Spikelets 2–4(–6)-flowered, shortly pedicelled or subsessile, alternate, in 2 rows on a tough rhachis; glumes unequal, membranous, usually lanceolate in side view, 1-nerved, acute, acuminate or with an awn-point, usually persistent; lowest floret hermaphrodite; lemma cartilaginous (coriaceous in C. lamproparia), mostly laterally compressed and keeled, usually ciliate on the margins and keel, entire or 2-lobed at the apex with a subapical awn; callus rounded or pungent, ciliate; 2nd–6th florets sterile, sometimes ♂, rarely hermaphrodite, embraced by or projecting from the side of the lowest floret; lemmas ± reduced or vestigial, awned or awnless; paleas usually absent

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Caryopsis ellipsoid to linear, usually trigonous, occasionally dorsally compressed.

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Inflorescence of few–many slender, typically digitate spikes

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Leaf-blades linear, flat or folded, acute to acuminate or obtuse; ligule membranous, short, ciliolate; sheaths rounded or keeled and flabellate

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Tufted, rhizomatous or stoloniferous perennials or annuals

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Included Species

    Synonyms

     Information From

    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • A
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • C
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • E Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Mesoamericana
    http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/fm/
    Gerrit Davidse, Mario Sousa Sánchez, A. O. Chater, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Instituto de Biología, Missouri Botanical Garden, Natural History Museum (London, England) UNAM, 1994
    • G Missouri Botanical Garden
    Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Costa%20Rica
    Hammel, B. E.; Grayum, M. H.; Herrera, C.; Zamora, N. Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2003-2014
    • H Missouri Botanical Garden
    Poaceae
    • I CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • J CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).