Citrullus Schrad.
  • Enum. Pl. Afr. Austral. 2: 279. 1836.
  • [Generic name Citrus and Latin -ellus, diminutive, alluding to supposed resemblance of fruits]


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Citrullus Schrad. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000008410. Accessed on: 06 Jun 2020'

General Information

Plants annual or perennial, monoecious, trailing or climbing; stems , villous or pustulate-scabrous to pustulate-hispid and sparsely hirsute; roots fibrous or fleshy to somewhat woody, tuberous; tendrils unbranched or 2–3[–4]-branched. Leaves: blade ovate or elongate-ovate to lanceolate-ovate or ovate-triangular, deeply palmately 3–5(–7)-lobed, lobes oblong to ovate or triangular, each pinnately lobed to shallowly sinuate-lobulate, margins remotely serrate to dentate or denticulate, surfaces eglandular. Inflorescences: staminate and pistillate flowers solitary, from different axils; bracts , linear. Flowers: hypanthium campanulate; sepals 5, [oblong-ovate to deltate] lanceolate to linear-lanceolate; petals 5, connate in proximal 1/2, yellow, obovate-oblong to widely oblanceolate [oblong-lanceolate or oblong-ovate], 6–16 mm, pubescent to glabrate, corolla rotate to campanulate. Staminate flowers: stamens 3; filaments inserted at hypanthium base, distinct; thecae distinct, replicate, forming a head, connective broad; pistillodes present. Pistillate

  • Provided by: [E].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    4. Citrullus Schrad. ex Eckl. et Zeyh.

    Colocynthis Mill.

    Por A.K. Monro.

    Bejucos monoicos anuales o perennes. Hojas simples, pecioladas, frecuentemente lobadas. Zarcillos no ramificados o apicalmente 2-4-fidos. Flores estaminadas axilares, solitarias; hipanto campanulado; lobos del cáliz 5, lanceolados, remotos; corola rotata a anchamente campanulada; lobos de la corola 5, enteros; estambres 3, libres, 1 antera 1-locular, las otras 2-loculares, insertadas en el hipanto; filamentos cortos; conectivo ancho; tecas flexuosas. Flores pistiladas igual que las flores estaminadas; hipanto cortamente cilíndrico; lobos del cáliz y corola igual que en las flores estaminadas; ovario elipsoide a subgloboso, la superficie lisa, pelosa; óvulos numerosos, dispuestos horizontalmente; estigmas 3. Frutos medianos a grandes, globosos u oblongos, carnosos o secos, frecuentemente rallados, indehiscentes; semillas numerosas, ovoides, comprimidas. 3 spp. del Viejo Mundo; cultivada en todo el mundo en regiones tropicales y templadas cálidas.

    La única especie en Mesoamérica es Citrullus lanatus .

  • Provided by: [G].Flora Mesoamericana
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    CITRULLUS Schrad. ex Eckl. & Zeyh.

    Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai, Cat. Sem. Spor. Hort. Bot. Univ. Imp. Tokyo 1916: 30. 1916; Cucurbita citrullus L.; Momordica lanata Thunb.; Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. ex Eckl. & Zeyh.; Colocynthis citrullus (L.) Kuntze.

    Plantas anuales, usualmente rastreras, suavemente pilosas; monoicas. Hojas ovadas o ampliamente ovadas, 5–20 cm de largo y 2.5–17 cm de ancho, cordadas, membranosas, vellosas especialmente en los nervios del envés, tornándose escábrido-punteadas cuando viejas, por lo general profundamente 3–5-palmatilobadas, los lobos profundamente 5–7-pinnatilobulados, el lóbulo central más grande; lóbulos agudos a redondeados, apiculados; pecíolos 2–18.5 cm de largo, vellosos; zarcillos usualmente bífidos. Flores solitarias, axilares, probrácteas presentes en la base del pedicelo, obovado-espatuladas, 4–14 mm de largo; flores estaminadas pediceladas, pedicelos 1.5–4.5 cm de largo, hipanto ampliamente campanulado-obcónico, 2–5 mm de largo, sépalos 5, lanceolados, 2–5.5 mm de largo, verde pálidos, corola campanulada, pétalos 5, obovados, 6–19 mm de largo, cortamente unidos en el base, amarillos con los nervios verdes, estambres 3, conectivos anchos, tecas flexuosas; flores pistiladas pediceladas, pedicelos 0.3–4.5 cm de largo, hipanto 1.5–2 mm de largo, perianto igual al de las flores estaminadas, ovario elipsoide a subgloboso, velloso, 6–15 mm de largo, placentas 3, óvulos numerosos, estigmas 3. Frutos subglobosos a elipsoides, redondeados, grandes, hasta 60 cm de largo y 30 cm de ancho, verdes, frecuentemente variegados o rayados en verde más obscuro, con la cáscara rígida, carnosos, la carne amarilla a roja, jugosa, dulce; semillas numerosas, ovadas, 7–11 mm de largo, 4–6 mm de ancho y 2.5–2.7 mm de grueso, lisas o ligeramente ásperas, de diversos colores, a veces variegadas.

    Común en bosques deciduos y pastizales en suelos arenosos, especialmente en los márgenes de los lagos, en todas las zonas del país; 0–500 m; fl y fr jun–oct; Araquistain 119, Stevens 9496; nativa de la región del Kalahari en el sur de Africa, cultivada en todos los países cálidos por sus frutos y semillas comestibles, localmente naturalizada. Existen otras 2 especies perennes en Africa. "Sandía".

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    Monoecious, tendriled vines; stems creeping, 5- to 10-sulcate. Leaves petiolate, deeply pinnatifid, the lobes often further divided; tendrils 2- to 5-branched, rarely spinescent. Staminate flowers solitary or rarely fascicullate; calyx broadly campanulate, 5-lobate; corolla rotate or broadly campanulate, deeply 5-lobate; stamens 3, inserted on the calyx tube at the base, the filaments free, short, the anthers free or slightly connate, flexuous, 1 anther unilocular, others bilocular; pistillodium glanduliform. Pistillate flowers disposed similarly to the staminate flowers; calyx and corolla as in the staminate flowers; ovary ovoid, 3-carpellate, the styles 3, connate, the stigmas 3, reniform, somewhat bilobate; staminodia 3, short, setiform or ligulate. Fruits globose or oblong, large, fleshy or dry, inde- hiscent; seeds numerous, horizontal, oblong, compressed, marginate or emarginate.

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    Herbs, climbing, annual or perennial. Stem and branches scabrous, robust. Tendrils 2- or 3-fid, rarely simple. Leaves orbicular or triangular-ovate, deeply 3-5-partite; segments lobulate or dissected. Plants monoecious; flowers solitary, rarely fasciculate. Male flowers: calyx tube broadly campanulate, 5-lobed; corolla rotate or broadly campanulate, deeply 5-partite; segments ovate-oblong; stamens 3, inserted on base of calyx tube; filaments free, short; anthers free or slightly coherent, one 1-celled, others 2-celled; anther cells linear, sigmoid-flexuous; connective dilated, not produced; rudimentary ovary glandlike. Female flowers: calyx and corolla as in male flowers; staminodes 3, setiform or ligulate; ovary ovoid, with 3 placentas; ovules numerous, horizontal; style short, columnar; stigmas 3, thick, reniform, nearly 3-lobed. Fruit globose or oblong, fleshy or dry, indehiscent, many seeded. Seeds oblong, compressed, smooth, marginate or emarginate.

  • Provided by: [H].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    Morphology

    Probracts present.

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    Prostrate or scandent annual or perennial herbs.

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    Tendrils simple, proximally 2–4-fid, or absent.

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    Leaves simple, petiolate, usually ± deeply lobed.

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    Seeds ovate in outline, compressed, smooth or slightly rough.

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    Female flowers solitary; receptacle-tube very short, cylindrical, perianth otherwise similar to that of male flower; staminodes 3; ovary ellipsoid or subglobose, hairy, smooth; ovules many, horizontal; stigma 3-lobed.

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    Fruit subspherical or ellipsoid, greenish or yellow, often mottled, terete, firm-walled, fleshy, indehiscent.

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    Flowers yellow, monoecious.

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    Male flowers solitary. Receptacle-tube short, campanulate; lobes lanceolate, remote. Petals 5, shortly united, entire. Stamens 3, 2 double two-thecous, 1 single one-thecous; filaments inserted on receptacle-tube; connectives broad; thecae flexuous.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Tendrils simple, proximally 2–4-fid, or absent

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    Leaves simple, usually deeply ± pinnately lobed

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Annual or tuberous-rooted perennial trailing or climbing herbs

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Fruit large, subspherical, greenish, firm-walled, fleshy, indehiscent

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Seeds many, usually ovate in outline, compressed, smooth or slightly rough

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    Probracts present

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    Flowers yellow, of medium size, monoecious

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Male flowers solitary; receptacle-tube short, campanulate; lobes moderately large; petals 5, united below the middle; stamens inserted on the tube, 3 (2 double 2-thecous, 1 single 1-thecous), free; connectives broad; thecae flexuous

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Female flowers solitary; ovary hairy, subglobose; ovules many, horizontal; receptacle-tube short; staminodes present; stigma 3-lobed

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    Fig. 5, p. 45.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Habit

    vines

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    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES Aquino Assis, J. G. de et al. 2000. Implications of the introgression between Citrullus colocynthis and C. lanatus characters in the taxonomy, evolutionary dynamics and breeding of watermelon. Pl. Genet. Resources Newslett. 121: 15–19. Dane, F. and P. Lang. 2004. Sequence variation at cpDNA regions of watermelon and related wild species: Implications for the evolution of Citrullus haplotypes. Amer. J. Bot. 91: 1922–1929. Dane F., P. Lang, and R. Bakhtiyarova. 2004. Comparative analysis of chloroplast DNA variability in wild and cultivated Citrullus species. Theor. Appl. Genet. 108: 958–966. Dane F. and J. Liu. 2007. Diversity and origin of cultivated and citron type watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 54: 1255–1265. Fursa, T. B. 1972. K sistematike roda Citrullus Schrad. (On the taxonomy of genus Citrullus Schrad.) Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 57: 31–41. Fursa, T. B. 1981. Intraspecific classification of water-melon under cultivation. Kulturpflanze 29: 297–300. Jarret, R. L. and M. Newman. 2000. Phylogenetic relationships among species of Citrullus and the placement of C. rehmii De Winter as determined by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence heterogeneity. Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 47: 215–222. Levi, A. and C. E. Thomas. 2005. Polymorphisms among chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes of Citrullus species and subspecies. Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 52: 609–617.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    [Generic name Citrus and Latin -ellus, diminutive, alluding to supposed resemblance of fruits]

     Information From

    Cucurbitaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • C
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • D
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • E Flora of North America Association
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Mesoamericana
    http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/fm/
    Gerrit Davidse, Mario Sousa Sánchez, A. O. Chater, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Instituto de Biología, Missouri Botanical Garden, Natural History Museum (London, England) UNAM, 1994
    • G Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • H Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • I Missouri Botanical Garden
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • J CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).