Citrus L.
  • Sp. Pl. 2: 782. 1753. (1 May 1753)


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Citrus L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000008411. Accessed on: 22 Oct 2021'

General Information

CITRUS L.

Por Amy Pool

Arboles pequeños, generalmente con espinas simples en las axilas de las hojas, las ramas viejas frecuentemente sin espinas, perennifolios; plantas hermafroditas o a veces andromonoicas. Hojas alternas, unifolioladas, subcoriáceas; pecíolo generalmente alado y articulado con la lámina. Inflorescencia de flores solitarias o racimos corimbosos cortos, axilar, yemas floríferas globosas a oblongas, flores actinomorfas; cáliz cupuliforme, con 4 ó 5 lobos, verde; corola con (4) 5 (–8) pétalos libres, imbricados; estambres generalmente 4 (6–10) veces el número de pétalos, en grupos adheridos en la base, anteras oblongas a sagitadas, sin apéndice, estaminodios ausentes; disco anular corto, estilo 1, corto, estigma capitado. Fruto un hesperidio con 8–25 carpelos unidos, amarillo o anaranjado al madurar, cubierta punteada con numerosas glándulas; el número de semillas depende del cultivar.

Género con ca 18 especies, probablemente originario de las áreas tropicales secas del sureste de Asia y cultivado en Asia y en China por miles de años, volviéndose muy popular en otras partes del mundo sólo a principios del siglo XIX. En la actualidad se cultiva en las zonas tropicales y especialmente subtropicales. En este tratado se incluyen 3 especies y 3 híbridos, uno de ellos con tres grupos de cultivares. No hay ninguna evidencia de que estas especies naturalicen en Nicaragua, pero los árboles cultivados son frecuentemente abandonados y se vuelven parte de la vegetación secundaria. Debido a la escasez de material, las descripciones se basan en la literatura y pueden no describir exactamente las especies tal y como se presentan en Nicaragua. El fruto frecuentemente madura manteniendo su color verde.

E.A. Salter. Rutáceas. In: De la Flora Nicaraguense. Arboles y Arbustos Más Notables. 103–106. 1954; W.T. Swingle y P.C. Reece. The botany of Citrus and its wild relatives. In: W. Reuther, H.J. Webber y L.D. Batchelor. The Citrus Industry 1: 190–430. 1967; J.W. Purseglove. Rutaceae. In: Tropical Crops. Dicotyledons 2: 493–522. 1968; L.R. Holdridge y L.J. Poveda. Citrus. In: Arboles de Costa Rica 1: 453–460. 1975; J. León. Rutáceas. In: Botánica de los Cultivos Tropicales. 238–252. 1987; D.J. Mabberly. A classification for edible Citrus (Rutaceae). Telopea 7: 167–172. 1997.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora de Nicaragua
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    Aromatic glabrous shrubs or small trees, usually armed with solitary axillary sharp brown-tipped green spines, the branchlets angled, soon terete, green, glandular punctate, the older branches often thornless. Leaves alternate, 1-folio- late, persistent; leaflets subcoriaceous, usually thin, glandular punctate through- out, entire to serrate, shiny dark green above, paler and duller beneath; petioles usually more or less winged and articulated with the leaflets. Flowers axillary, solitary, paired, or in short corymbose cymes, regular, (4-)5-merous, bisexual or staminate by more or less complete abortion of the gynoecium, 2-5 cm in diameter, often fragrant; plants dioecious or polygamous; calyx shallowly cupular, (4-)5-lobed, persistent, petals (4-)5(-8), free, white, pink, or purplish pink, slightly fleshy, more or less oblong, strongly glandular punctate, imbricate; stamens 20-60, usually 4(6-10) times as many as the petals, polyadelphous or

  • Provided by: [D].Flora de Panama
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    free, the filaments linear lanceolate, subulate apically, white, usually variously connate, the anthers oblong to sagittate; intrastaminal disc prominent, annular to cushionlike, supporting the gynoecium; gynoecium syncarpous, the ovary sessile, varying from subglobose and sharply distinct from the much narrower style to truncated, fusiform, or subcylindrical and merging gradually into a style nearly as thick as the upper part of the ovary, glandular punctate, glabrous, (8-)10-14(-18)-loculed, the ovules 4-8 or more per locule in 2 collateral rows, the placentation axile, the style apical on ovary, cylindrical, abruptly expanded into the stigma, deciduous, the stigma more or less capitate, subglobose or oblate spheroidal, sometimes slightly lobed. Fruit a berry (hesperidium), ellipsoidal and often mammillate apically, or pyriform to globose and sometimes depressed apically, the pericarp differentiated into a coriaceous glandular-punctate exocarp (the skin) green to red orange at maturity and dotted with numerous oil glands, a thick spongy white mesocarp (the rind), and a membranaceous endocarp filled with stalked fusiform pulp vescicles containing a watery acid to sweet tissue (the pulp), the thin membranous radial locule walls often loosely coherent and easily separated from one another as well as from the spongy white fruit axis; seeds ellipsoidal to obovoid, plump or flattened, more or less angular, sometimes beaked apically, usually several per locule at the inner angle, the testa coriaceous, the endosperm absent, the embryos 1-many, white or green, the cotyledons fleshy, plano convex, often unequal.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora de Panama
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    Shrubs or small trees, evergreen, rarely deciduous. Young branches often flat and angled, usually with solitary (rarely paired) spines at axils. Leaves 1-foliolate, rarely 3-foliolate or simple; petiole usually articulated with base of leaf blade, usually conspicuously winged; leaf blade subleathery to leathery, with dense pellucid fragrant oil dots, margin crenulate or rarely entire. Flowers axillary, hermaphrodite or male, solitary or in small fascicles, fragrant. Calyx cup-shaped; lobes 3-5, subglabrous. Petals (3 or)4 or 5(-8), white or outside pinkish red, imbricate, thick. Stamens usually 4(-10) × as many as petals, free or basally coherent. Disk annular or short, with nectary glands. Ovary (3-)5-14(-18)-loculed, each locule with 2-8 or more ovules; stigma large. Fruit a berry (hesperidium) with sarcocarp segments of pulp vesicles and adaxially attached seeds. Seed coat smooth or ridged; embryo(s) 1 to many, like cotyledons milky white, green, or rarely yellowish, germination hypogeous.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    Morphology

    No indigenous species of Citrus are found in our area but some of the cultivated species (especially C. limon (L.) Burm. f. and C. aurantium L.) may become naturalized.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Dr. G. R. Bates has kindly provided the appended note on the cultivation of Citrus in the Federation.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Ovary (4) 5-many-locular; loculi 4–8-ovulate.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Fruit a large globose or ovoid or obovoid hesperidium, many-seeded and usually composed of numerous carpels.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Flowers bisexual, (4) 5-merous.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Stamens numerous, in phalanges.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Small trees or shrubs.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Leaves 1-foliolate, with winged rhachis.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Small evergreen shrubs or trees up to 10 m. high

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Flowers single or in small clusters in leaf-axils, bisexual; calyx cup-shaped, 3–5-lobed; petals 4–8, normally 5, white; stamens numerous (20–40), in groups

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Leaves unifoliolate, with articulation between leaflet and petiole (except in C. medica); petiole normally winged

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Fruit a large globose, ovoid or obovoid berry known as a hesperidium, usually composed of many carpels, many-seeded.

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Ovary with 8–15 united carpels; locules 4–8-ovulate, with axile placentation

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Arbres'ou arbrisseaux; rameaux jeunes pourvus à l'aisselle des feuilles d'une épine droite, devenant inermes avec l'âge.'Feuilles'alternes, 1-foliolées; pétiole pourvu ou non d'un élargissement aliforme, habituellement articulé sous le limbe; limbe ± denticulé, à ponctuations translucides nombreuses, dégageant fréquemment une odeur caractéristique après froissement.'Inflorescences'axillaires, en courts racèmes corymbiformes ou fleurs solitaires.'Fleurs'☿ ou ♂ par avortement; calice ± cupuliforme ou urcéolé, à 4-5 sépales; pétales (4)5(8), imbriqués dans le bouton, épais, glanduleux; étamines 4(6-10) fois aussi nombreuses que les pétales; filets lancéolés, libres ou ± connés; anthères sagittées, plutôt introrses; disque épais, annulaire; ovaire (8)10-14(18)-loculaire; ovules 4-8 sur 2 rangs par loge; style cylindrique; stigmate capité, gros.'Baies'globuleuses ou allongées à loges remplies de vésicules fusiformes, stipitées, contenant un tissu pulpeux à larges cellules riches en eau, à graines dans l'angle interne; endocarpe blanc entourant les segments; péricarpe à nombreuses glandes oléifères, devenant jaune ou orangé à maturité.'Graines obovoïdes ou obovoïdes-comprimées, ± anguleuses, à 1 ou plusieurs embryons blancs ou verts.\n\t\t\t\tGenre originaire du Sud-Est de l'Asie et des îles du Pacifique. Les nombreuses espèces et variétés, mieux connues par leurs noms communs : cédratier, citronnier, mandarinier, oranger ont été introduites dans toutes les régions tropicales et subtropicales.

  • Provided by: [C].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
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    Habit

    shrubs or small trees

  • Provided by: [D].Flora de Panama
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    Distribution

    A genus of southern and southeastern Asia and Malaysia that is widely cultivated in all warmer areas of the world.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora de Panama
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     Information From

    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • A Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • B
    Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    https://www.floredafriquecentrale.be
    • C http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • E Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • F
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • G Missouri Botanical Garden
    Rutaceae
    • H CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • I CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).