Colubrina Rich. ex Brongn.
  • Mém. Fam. Rhamnées 61–62, pl. 4, f. 3. 1826. (Jul 1826)
  • Nakedwood [Latin coluber, racer snake, perhaps alluding to twisting of deep furrows on stems of some species]


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Colubrina Rich. ex Brongn. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000008985. Accessed on: 22 Oct 2021'

General Information

Trees, shrubs, or scandent shrubs, deciduous or evergreen, always unarmed. Leaves alternate to rarely opposite, papery to subleathery; stipules minute, early deciduous; margin entire, serrate or crenate; venation pinnate or 3-veined from base. Flowers bisexual, 5-merous, mainly few in axillary cymes or small thyrses, sessile or shortly pedunculate. Calyx tube hemisperical; sepals 5, triangular, abaxially rather densely pubescent, adaxially conspicuously keeled, deciduous. Petals 5, erect to spreading, clawed. Stamens 5, ca. as long as petals; anthers dorsifixed, dehiscing introrsely. Disk massive, fleshy, adnate to calyx tube. Ovary semi-inferior, 3(or 4)-loculed, with 1 ovule per locule; style 3-lobed to 3-fid. Fruit a subglobose capsule; mesocarp thin, dry or rather fleshy; endocarp cartilaginous to woody, splitting explosively or slowly into 3 ventrally dehiscent, 1-seeded endocarpids. Seeds shiny, broadly obovoid, rarely with a minute aril; testa leathery to bony; endosperm fleshy, thick.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    3. Colubrina Rich.ex Brongn., nom. cons.

    Por A.Pool.

    Árboleso arbustos, generalmente erectos (desparramados en Colubrina asiatica); plantas inermes o armadas conaguijones desde las axilas de las hojas; yemas sin escamas (presentes sobre losbrotes cortos laterales). Hojas alternas, opuestas o subopuestas, ofasciculadas sobre brotes cortos, pinnatinervias (Mesoamérica), algunas vecescon el par de nervaduras laterales más proximal originándose con la vena mediaen la unión del pecíolo y la lámina, pero estas no más fuertes o sololigeramente más fuertes que las nervaduras laterales más distales y no tanfuertes como la vena media, las nervaduras laterales sin franjas, con glándulaso sin estas en la unión de la lámina de la hoja y el pecíolo, los márgenesenteros o dentados, cuando son enteros algunas veces tienen glándulas o algunasveces están dispuestas en líneas más o menos paralelas e internas al margen dela hoja (o menos generalmente las glándulas pocas y esparcidas) o si sondentados, entonces cada diente con una glándula en o cerca de su ápice;pecioladas; estípulas libres dispuestas lateralmente en la base del pecíolo, nolobadas. Inflorescencias axilares, en cimas compuestas, con pocas a numerosasflores, las cimas algunas veces fasciculadas o dispuestas en tirsos cortos,sésiles o cortamente pedunculadas, con bractéolas persistentes o sin estas, lasramas algunas veces racemiformes, o las inflorescencias en fascículos de brotescortos, los brotes cortos cubiertos por bractéolas sobrepuestas persistentes,cada una subyacente a una flor pedicelada, los pedicelos alargándose a medidaque las flores y los frutos maduran. Flores bisexuales, 5-meras; hipantopateliforme a hemisférico, adhiriéndose a la base del ovario; sépalostriangulares, adaxialmente carinados, desprendiéndose a lo largo del borde delhipanto; pétalos generalmente más cortos que los sépalos o tan largos comoestos, marcadamente cóncavos, cortamente unguiculados, apicalmente redondeados,blancos, blanco-verdosos o amarillo-verdosos, envolviendo a los estambres en laantesis; estambres opuestos a los pétalos, escasamente más largos que lospétalos al madurar; disco marginalmente adnato al hipanto y anchamente anularcasi llenando la boca del hipanto excluyendo el pequeño anillo central o másangosto y formando un anillo abierto, epígino, carnoso, nectarífero,generalmente glabro, con frecuencia escasamente crenado; ovario en flor ínferoa semiínfero, 3-locular, el estilo trífido, las ramas separándose yextendiéndose después de la dehiscencia de la antera, los estigmas 3, pequeños.Frutos capsulares, secos con tres zonas visibles antes de la dehiscencia: laprimera zona en la base es el hipanto, encerrando 1/10-1/2 basal del fruto,siendo aplanado a levemente cupuliforme, apicalmente está marcado por lascicatrices del perianto caído y fusionado con el ovario y dehiscenteapicalmente con el ovario e irregularmente separándose de la porción basal lacual es retenida en el pedicelo después de la dehiscencia, la segunda zonainmediatamente por encima de las cicatrices consiste del disco, algunas vecessecando con diferente textura o color al del ovario, ahora siendo un anillorelativamente angosto el cual está fusionado con el ovario y es dehiscente coneste, y por encima del disco se encuentra la tercera zona, el ovario, el cuales ahora 1/2-9/10 superior al hipanto; fruto incluyendo el hipanto y el discoobovoide a casi globoso con 3 lobos escasamente discernibles, y 3 y algunasveces eventualmente 6 surcos, el epicarpo y el mesocarpo relativamente delgadosy secos, coriáceo a frágil, adhiriéndose al endocarpo y en la

  • Provided by: [H].Flora Mesoamericana
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    COLUBRINA Brongn.

    Colubrina Rich. ex Brongn., nom. cons.Trees or shrubs, usually erect (scandent in C. asiatica (L.) Brongn.), plants unarmed or armed with thorns from leaf axils, bud scales v present or absent. Leaves alternate, opposite or sub-opposite, or fasciculate at short shoots, petiolate, venation pinnate (Mesoamerica), sometimes with most proximal pair of lateral veins originating with midrib at junction of petiole and blade, but these not, or little stronger than more distal lateral veins, and not as strong as midrib), with or without glands at junction of leaf and petiole, margins entire or toothed, if entire sometimes with glands along entire margin or sometimes arranged in lines more or less parallel and internal to leaf margin (or less commonly glands few and scattered) or if toothed, each tooth with a gland, on or near apex; stipules present, usually caducous, un-lobed. Inflorescences axillary, of few to numerous-flowered compound cymes, the cymes sometimes fasciculate or arranged in short thyrses, sessile or short-pedunculate, with or without persistent bracteoles, branches sometimes racemiform, or inflorescences fascicles of short-shoots, the short-shoots covered with persistent over-lapping bracteoles, each subtending a pedicellate flower, pedicels elongating as flowers and fruits mature. Flowers bisexual, 5-merous. Hypanthium patelliform to hemispheric, adhering to the base of ovary. Sepals triangular, valvate in bud, adaxially keeled, abscising along rim of hypanthium. Petals usually smaller or equal to sepals in length, strongly concave, short-clawed, apically rounded, white, greenish-white, or yellow-green, enfolding the stamens, deciduous. Stamens opposite petals, slightly longer than petals at maturity, filaments linear, adnate to base of petals; anthers dehiscing by longitudinal slits. Disk marginally adnate to hypanthium and broadly annular nearly filling mouth of hypanthium excluding small central annulus or narrower and forming an open ring, epigynous, fleshy, nectiferous, usually glabrous, often slightly crenate but without distinct lobes of staminode origin. Ovary in flower inferior to semi-superior, 3-locular, style 3-fid, branches separating and extending after anther dehiscence, stigmas 3, small. Fruit a dry capsule with three zones seen pre-dehiscence: at base the hypanthium, concealing the basal 1/10—1/2 of fruit, now flat to shallowly cupular, the apical margin of which is marked by scars from fallen perianth and fused to and dehiscing with ovary apically and irregularly separating from basal portion which is retained on pedicel post-dehiscence, immediately above scars is the disc, sometimes drying with different texture or color than ovary, now a relatively narrow ring which is fused to and dehisces with the ovary, and above the disc the ovary which is now ½--9/10 superior to hypanthium, fruit including hypanthium and disc obovoid to nearly globose with 3 barely discernable lobes and 3 and sometimes eventually 6 sulcations, the epicarp and mesocarp relatively thin and dry, leathery to brittle, adhering to endocarp and at dehiscence dividing with it or breaking irregularly and the endocarp crustaceous to cartilaginous, dividing at maturity into 3 endocarpids. Endocarpids dehiscing along the ventral line, the 2 septums, and to various degrees dorsally, the base of septum sometimes retained on flattened hypanthium, forming a columnella with flaring basal membranaceous wings, seeds one per endocarpid, broadly obovoid, brown or black, sometimes with retained aril (funicle) or at times with aril retained on columnella.

    Género con ca 32 especies, North American and pantropical; 7 especies en Nicaragua.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora de Nicaragua
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    Shrubs, or small trees, evergreen or deciduous, with or without spines. Leaves alternate or opposite, pinnately-nerved or 3-nerved from the base, entire or finely dentate, with or without small glands on the lower surface, and/or 1 or 2 glands at the base of the blade; mostly petiolate, the stipules minute, free, caducous, or rarely connate and persistant. Inflorescences cymes or thyrses, small, sessile or shortly-peduncled, axillary, few-flowered, rarely reduced to a single flower. Flowers bisexual; floral tube cupulate; calyx 5-lobed, the lobes triangular-ovate, spreading, with a fleshy keel on the inner surface, deciduous; petals 5, greenish-yellow, yellow, or white, more or less ovate and concave, sessile or with a short stalk; stamens 5, enclosed by the petals, the anthers ovate; disc large, fleshy, filling the floral tube, adnate to the lower half of the ovary; ovary semi-inferior, 3-carpellate, ovules 3, the style slender, 3-lobed, the stigmas 3, small. Fruit capsular, slightly 3-lobed, dehiscent; seeds 3, obovate, brown to black, the testa lustrus.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora de Panama
  • Shrubs or trees, unarmed [armed with thorns]; bud scales present at least on short shoots. Leaves persistent or deciduous, alternate [opposite], sometimes fascicled on short shoots; blade not gland-dotted; pinnately veined or 3-veined from base (acrodromous). Inflorescences axillary, usually cymes, thyrses, or fascicles, rarely flowers solitary; peduncles and pedicels not fleshy in fruit. Pedicels present. Flowers bisexual; hypanthium hemispheric, 2–3 mm wide; sepals 5, spreading, brown to greenish, ovate-triangular to triangular, keeled adaxially; petals 5, greenish or yellowish to creamy white, ± hooded, spatulate or obovate, clawed; nectary fleshy, adnate to and sometimes ± filling hypanthium; stamens 5; ovary 1/2-inferior to inferior, 3(–4)-locular; styles 3, connate proximally. Fruits capsules, sometimes tardily dehiscent, 3-locular.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    Morphology

    Unarmed (or rarely armed but not in Africa) trees and shrubs, rarely scandent (as in the present species) but never a liane or twiner

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Leaves alternate (or opposite but not in Africa)

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    Cup and disk accrescent and persistently coherent to the 3(4)-celled ovary, at maturity covering the lower sixth to half of the fruit and at dehiscence breaking away ± irregularly along with the dryish (not spongy) exocarp, the 3 remnants adhering to the 3 crustaceous 1-seeded endo-mericarps which separate completely from each other, each releasing its seed through a longitudinal ventral slit.

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Disk massive and nearly completely surrounding the ovary

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    • 5
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    Ovary at anthesis inferior but later by differential growth becoming at least half superior

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    • 5
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    Stipules present, rarely (never in Africa) interpetiolar

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
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    Flowers bisexual, protandrous, 5-merous, in small axillary thyrses or fascicles

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
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    Disk fleshy.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
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    Ovary immersed in the disk and ± fused with it, 3(4)-locular; style 3(4)-fid.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 6
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    Petals 5, cucullate, unguiculate, inserted below the disk.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Stamens 5.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
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    Capsule ± spherical, dehiscing septicidally into 3 cocci; exocarp thin and not fleshy.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Seeds 3-gonous.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
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    Flower bisexual, pedicellate.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
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    Sepals 5.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
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    Receptacle hemispherical.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 6
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    Shrubs or trees, unarmed.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 6
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    Leaves alternate, petiolate; lamina with serrulate margin, 3–5-nerved from base, penninerved distally; stipules small, deciduous.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 6
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    Cymes axillary.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 6
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    Habit

    Shrubs, or small trees

  • Provided by: [G].Flora de Panama
  • Distribution

    A pantropical genus of 30 species.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora de Panama
  • Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES Johnston, M. C. 1971. Revision of Colubrina (Rhamnaceae). Brittonia 23: 2–53. Nesom, G. L. 2013. Taxonomic notes on Colubrina (Rhamnaceae). Phytoneuron 2013-4: 1–21.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    • 11
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    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Nakedwood [Latin coluber, racer snake, perhaps alluding to twisting of deep furrows on stems of some species]

     Information From

    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • A Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • B
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • C
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • E Flora of North America Association
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • G Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Mesoamericana
    http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/fm/
    Gerrit Davidse, Mario Sousa Sánchez, A. O. Chater, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Instituto de Biología, Missouri Botanical Garden, Natural History Museum (London, England) UNAM, 1994
    • H Missouri Botanical Garden
    Rhamnaceae
    • I CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • J CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).