Crataegus L.
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 475. 1753. (1 May 1753)
  • Hawthorn, aubépine [Greek Krataigon, thorn, from Greek kratos, strength, and akis, sharp tip, alluding to thorns of some species]


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Crataegus L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000009592. Accessed on: 16 Oct 2021'

General Information

3. Crataegus L., nom. cons.

Por F.R. Barrie.

Arbustos o árboles pequeños. Troncos y ramas más grandes generalmente armados con aguijones robustos, simples o ramificados; ramas más pequeñas con hojas sobre microblastos laterales, estos típicamente abrazados por aguijones rectos sin ramificar. Hojas alternas, simples, las hojas de las ramas maduras consistentes en forma, aquellas de los brotes juveniles con frecuencia inconsistentemente variables y diferentes en forma de las hojas maduras; láminas simples, dentadas o lobadas; estípulas caducas o persistentes, pecioladas. Inflorescencias terminales, en corimbos. Flores con hipanto cupuliforme o campanulado; sépalos 5; pétalos 5, insertados sobre el margen del disco, estambres (5)10-20(25), en 1-3 series; ovario ínfero; carpelos 1-5; estilos 1-5, libres hasta la base; óvulos generalmente 1 por carpelo. Frutos en pomos; semillas 1-5. 250-500 spp. Regiones templadas de Eurasia y Norteamérica, 2 spp. en Mesoamérica.

Crataegus es un género en extremo complicado taxonómicamente. Se han publicado aprox. 1000 nombres basados en tipos norteamericanos, pero el número actual de especies es probablemente entre 10-25% de ese número. El límite sureño natural de Crataegus es en Chiapas y oeste de Guatemala. Una especie, C. mexicana, es cultivada en otras regiones de Centroamérica y Sudamérica en elevaciones más altas.

Las especies de Crataegus generalmente tienen las hojas de dos formas, una forma juvenil, que se encuentra en los macroblastos jóvenes de las plántulas, y una forma madura, que se encuentra en los microblastos perennes (Phipps,1997). Las últimas son en general morfológicamente consistentes, mientras que las primeras pueden ser bastante variables y frecuentemente diferentes de las hojas maduras. En las descripciones siguientes, las hojas descritas son de brotes maduros.

Bibliografía: Eggleston, W.W. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 36: 501-514 (1909). Phipps, J.B. Sida Bot. Misc. 15: 1-94 (1997).

  • Provided by: [E].Flora Mesoamericana
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Shrubs, subshrubs, or small trees, deciduous, rarely evergreen, armed, rarely unarmed; buds ovoid or subglobose. Leaves simple, stipulate, venation craspedodromous, margin serrate and lobed or partite, rarely entire. Inflorescences corymbose, sometimes flowers solitary. Hypanthium campanulate. Sepals 5. Petals 5, white, rarely pinkish. Stamens 5–25; carpels 1–5, connate, but free apically. Ovary inferior or semi-inferior, with 2 ovules per locule, but one rudimentary. Fruit a pome, with persistent sepals at apex; carpels bony when mature, each locule with 1 seed; seed erect, cotyledons plano-convex.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Shrubs or trees, ?usually main trunk dominant?, 3–120 dm. Stems usually 1 in larger plants, more in smaller plants, outer spreading; bark usually checked into rough, exfoliating plates, when usually dark, but freshly exposed ± russet, sometimes deeply corrugated and dark gray-brown, or smooth, thin and exfoliating, when usually pale, rarely with prominent horizontal lenticels; extension (long) and short shoots present; compound thorns on trunk abundant or absent; ?twigs ± thorny, thorns 10–60(–100) mm, growth determinate (indeterminate in sect. Crataegus)?; glabrous or tomentose in first year. Leaves deciduous (sometimes winter-persistent in south), cauline, alternate, ?scattered on extension shoots, often crowded on short shoots?, simple or deeply lobed; stipules deciduous with leaves or sometimes earlier, free, circinate or falcate, margins serrate to crenate, glandular; petiole present, ?often glandular?; blade ± ovate to narrowly elliptic or obovate, (1.2–)2–8(–12) cm, ?wider leaves shallowly to deeply incised (rarely pinnately compound), the narrower less incised?, margins flat, serrate, ?young teeth often gland-tipped?, venation pinnate, usually craspedodromous, surfaces glabrous to tomentose. Inflorescences terminal ?on few-leaved annual short shoots that usually arise from a subterminal bud on a woody short shoot, rarely arise laterally direct from an extension shoot?, 1–50-flowered, panicles ?domed, monopodial?, corymbose, or flowers solitary; bracts sometimes present, ?leafy?; bracteoles present, ?usually caducous?. Pedicels present. Flowers: perianth and androecium epigynous, 8–25 mm diam.; hypanthium ± obconic, constricted at disc except for opening, 2–6 mm wide; sepals 5, spreading, triangular; petals 5, white, sometimes pale cream (ser. Montaninsulae) or pale pink (ser. Aestivales, ser. Molles), ± circular, sometimes elliptic (ser. Lacrimatae) or ± elliptic (ser. Apiifoliae, ser. Triflorae), ?base barely clawed, margins ± entire?; stamens 5–20 (30–45 in C. triflora), usually shorter than petals; torus absent; carpels 1–5, distinct, laterally touching, partially adnate to hypanthium, styles ?1–5?, lateral, distinct, ?adnate most of length, exsert?; ovules 2, ?superposed?. Fruits pomes, yellow to red or purplish to black mature, suborbicular to ellipsoid or pyriform, 6–20(–25) mm diam. (larger in some cultivars), ?flesh soft, sometimes hard?; hypanthium persistent; sepals often persistent, appressed to erect; carpels woody; styles usually persistent. Pyrenes 1–5, ?dorsally grooved, sides plane or eroded, excavated, or pitted?. x = 17.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    "[Continued; 4th section.]C. ×puberis Sarg. = C. flabellata × punctataC. ×putata Sarg. = C. pruinosa × succulentaC. ×randiana Sarg. = C. brainerdii × flabellata C. C. ×rotundata Sarg. = C. pruinosa × rotundifolia C. ×rubrocarnea Sarg. = C. brainerdii × flabellata C. ×shirleyensis Sarg. = C. brainerdii × punctata C. ×silvestris Sarg. = C. pruinosa × punctataC. ×spatiosa Sarg. = C. pruinosa × succulentaC. ×vailiae Britton = C. calpodendron × unifloraC. ×vittata Ashe = C. coccinea × flabellataC. ×websteri Sarg. = C. brainerdii × calpodendron C. ×whitakeri Sarg. = C. calpodendron × mollisC. ×xanthophylla Sarg. = C. coccinea × flabellata [Continued]"

  • Provided by: [B].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    "Fls perfect, regular, in compound or nearly simple cymes, or rarely solitary; pet 5, white, rarely pink or red; sep 5, entire or glandular-serrate; stamens 5–25, arranged alternately in 1–5 rows; ovary inferior or free at the tip, the 1–5 carpels with as many persistent free styles; fr a small, globose to ovoid or pyriform pome, usually red or reddish, sometimes yellow, greenish, or blue-black, with 1–5 bony, usually 1-seeded nutlets; small trees or shrubs with usually thorny and often flexuous branches; lvs simple, deciduous, toothed and often also lobed, those of the flowering branches (the floral lvs) often unlike those of strictly vegetative branches; x=16, 17. Our spp. all fl in the spring and fr in the fall. 100+, N. Temp. and Andes.The spp. of Crataegus characteristically occur in disturbed sites or seral communities, such as pastures, edges of the forest, open second-growth woods, and thickets along streams. It has not been considered necessary to repeat these comments on the habitat for each species in the following text.The taxonomy of Crataegus is complicated by hybridization, polyploidy, aneuploidy, and apomixis. Several hundred species have been described from our range alone. A proper understanding of the group will require a thorough biosystematic study; the treatment here presented is rough and more than ordinarily tentative. Some names suspected or believed to apply to hybrids or plants of hybrid origin are listed before the key to accepted species.C. ×anomala Sarg. = C. coccinea × mollisC. ×apiomorpha Sarg. = C. coccinea × flabellataC. ×ardua Sarg. = C. punctata × succulentaC. ×aulica Sarg. = C. coccinea × dilatataC. ×celsa Sarg. = C. punctata × succulentaC. ×chadsfordiana Sarg. = C. pruinosa × succulentaC. ×collicola Ashe = C. crus-galli × punctataC. ×corusca Sarg. = C. coccinea × mollisC. ×danielsii E. J. Palmer = C. crus-galli × punctataC. ×densiflora Sarg. = C. flabellata × rotundifoliaC. ×desueta Sarg. = C. brainerdii × punctataC. ×disperma Ashe = C. crus-galli × punctataC. ×divida Sarg. = C. brainerdii × succulentaC. ×durobrivensis Sarg. = C. pruinosa × punctata C. ×ellwangeriana Sarg. = C. coccinea × mollis [Continued]"

  • Provided by: [B].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    "[Continued; 2nd section.]C. ×formosa Sarg. = C. flabellata × pruinosa C. ×fretalis Sarg. = C. coccinea × flabellataC. ×glareosa Ashe = C. pruinosa × succulentaC. ×haemocarpa Ashe = C. flabellata × pruinosaC. ×harryi Sarg. = C. brainerdii × punctataC. ×hirtiflora Sarg. = C. mollis × punctataC. ×ideae Sarg. = C. brainerdii × rotundifoliaC. ×illecebrosa Sarg. = C. coccinea × coccinioides×immanis Ashe = C. pruinosa × rotundifoliaC. ×improvisa Sarg. = C. brainerdii × coccineaC. ×incaedua Sarg. = C. calpodendron × punctataC. ×integriloba Sarg. = C. punctata × succulentaC. ×kellermanii Sarg. = C. pruinosa × punctataC. ×kelloggii Sarg. = C. mollis × rotundifoliaC. ×kennedyi Sarg. = C. brainerdii × pruinosaC. ×kingstonensis Sarg. = C. brainerdii × coccinioidesC. ×knieskerniana Sarg. = C. coccinea × flabellataC. ×laetifica Sarg. = C. crus-galli × succulenta [Continued]"

  • Provided by: [B].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    "[Continued; 3rd section]C. ×laneyi Sarg. = C. brainerdii × succulenta C. ×laurentiana Sarg. = C. rotundifolia × succulentaC. ×lecta Sarg. = C. mollis × pruinosaC. ×lettermanii Sarg. = C. mollis × punctata C. ×littoralis Sarg. = C. intricata × pruinosa C. ×locuples Sarg. = C. mollis × pruinosaC. ×lucorum Sarg. = C. coccinea × flabellataC. ×mansfieldensis Sarg. = C. coccinea × punctataC. ×media Sarg. = C. flabellata × pruinosaC. ×membranacea Sarg. = C. pruinosa × succulentaC. ×menandiana Sarg. = C. punctata × succulentaC. ×merita Sarg. = C. coccinea × flabellataC. ×neobaxteri Sarg. = C. punctata × rotundifolia C. ×nitida (Engelm) Sarg. = C. crus-galli × viridis C. ×nitidula Sarg. = C. punctata × rotundifoliaC. ×nuda Sarg. = C. crus-galli × succulentaC. ×pausiaca Ashe = C. crus-galli × punctataC. ×persimilis Sarg. = C. crus-galli × succulentaC. ×pilosa Sarg. = C. intricata × pruinosa [Continued]"

  • Provided by: [B].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES Lo, E. Y. Y. et al. 2009. Evidence for the genetic association between East Asian and western North American Crataegus L. (Rosaceae) and rapid divergence of the eastern North American lineages based on multiple DNA sequences. Molec. Phylogen. Evol. 51: 157–168. Palmer, E. J. 1925. Synopsis of North American Crataegi. J. Arnold Arbor. 6: 5–128. Palmer, E. J. 1950. Crataegus. In: M. L. Fernald. 1950. Gray’s Manual of Botany, ed. 8. New York. Pp. 767–801. Palmer, E. J. 1952. Crataegus. In: H. A. Gleason. 1952. The New Britton and Brown Illustrated Flora of the Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. 3 vols. New York. Vol. 2, pp. 338–375. Palmer, E. J. 1960. Crataegus. Key to series and species. In: R. A. Vines. 1960. Trees, Shrubs, and Woody Vines of the Southwest. Austin. Pp. 329–334. Phipps, J. B. 1998. Synopsis of Crataegus series Apiifoliae, Cordatae, Microcarpae, and Brachyacanthae (Rosaceae subfam. Maloideae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 85: 475–491. Phipps, J. B. 2005. Review of hybridization in Crataegus—Another look at “The Crataegus Problem.” Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 92: 113–127. Phipps, J. B., R. J. O’Kennon, and R. W. Lance. 2003. Hawthorns and Medlars. Portland.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Included Species

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Hawthorn, aubépine [Greek Krataigon, thorn, from Greek kratos, strength, and akis, sharp tip, alluding to thorns of some species]

     Information From

    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • A Missouri Botanical Garden
    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • B Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • C Flora of North America Association
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Mesoamericana
    http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/fm/
    Gerrit Davidse, Mario Sousa Sánchez, A. O. Chater, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Instituto de Biología, Missouri Botanical Garden, Natural History Museum (London, England) UNAM, 1994
    • E Missouri Botanical Garden
    Rosaceae
    CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0). https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0
    • F CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • G CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).