Cuscuta L.
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 124. 1753. (1 May 1753)
  • Cabello de ángel, Fideos


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Cuscuta L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000010113. Accessed on: 28 Sep 2021'

General Information

CUSCUTA L.

Tania Béliz

Enredaderas parásitas, herbáceas, de color anaranjado intenso o pajizo; plantas hermafroditas. Hojas reducidas, alternas, simples, del mismo color que el tallo; estípulas ausentes. Inflorescencias cimas simples o compuestas o las flores solitarias, flores actinomorfas, campanuladas o urceoladas, blancas, perianto biseriado, lobos erectos o reflexos, en algunos casos papilosos en la superficie externa o con células secretoras; sépalos 5, unidos o libres, la base de los lobos imbricados o libres, generalmente persistentes; pétalos 5, unidos, ligeramente imbricados en la base, ápices agudos, obtusos o apiculados; estambres 5, epicorolinos, alternos a los pétalos, filamentos rara vez ausentes, en algunos casos ligeramente subulados, insertados en la boca del tubo corolino, anteras ditecas, dorsifijas, con dehiscencia longitudinal; escamas infrastaminales fimbriadas; ovario súpero, ovoide-globoso o deprimido-cilíndrico, generalmente verde, con o sin apertura intraestilar, con o sin estilopodio, carpelos 2, unidos, estilos 2, cilíndricos y capilares, o ligeramente subulados hacia la base, estigmas 2, capitados, 1 por estilo, óvulos generalmente 2 por lóculo, a veces sólo 1. Fruto seco, indehiscente, o dehiscente por una línea circular basal más o menos regular; semillas 1–4, con la cubierta delgada.

Un género con ca 150 especies de distribución cosmopolita, especialmente en los trópicos y subtrópicos; 3 especies se conocen en Nicaragua y otras 2 se esperan encontrar. Parasitan a una gran variedad de plantas herbáceas y/o leñosas, y se encuentran en hábitats variados, desde el nivel del mar hasta las zonas montañosas y con frecuencia se las encuentra como malezas en campos cultivados. El período de floración varía de acuerdo a las especies, entre 6 y 12 meses y la producción de frutos coincide con los últimos meses del período de floración. Se las conoce con los nombres comunes de "Cabello de ángel", "Enredadera del diablo", "Fideos". En la Flora de Nicaragua tratada como la familia monogenérica Cuscutaceae.

Fl. Guat. 24(9): 12–19. 1970; Fl. Pan. 62: 220–221. 1975; T.G. Yuncker. Cuscuta. N. Amer. Fl., ser. 2, 4: 1–51. 1965; T.C. Béliz. A Revision of Cuscuta sect. Cleistogrammica Using Phenetic and Cladistic Analyses with a Comparison of Reproductive Mechanisms and Host Preferences in Species from California, Mexico, and Central America. Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, Berkeley. 1986.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 12
    • ]. 

    Vines without chlorophyll; the stems twining, filiform, yellow or orange or rarely greenish, attached to host plants by haustoria; roots withering and absent from mature plants. Leaves reduced to minute scales. Inflorescences cymose, composed of small whitish flowers; calyx gamosepalous, 5-lobed, the sepals rarely almost free; corolla urceolate or campanulate, the 5 lobes various, usually with basal scale-like appendages inside opposite the stamens, forming a corona; the pollen 3-colpate; ovary 2-locular, locules biovulate, styles 2, distinct or rarely united, terminal, the stigmas capitate to linear. Fruit capsular or circumscissle near the base; the seeds (1-3)-4, smooth or roughened.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora de Panama
  • Enredaderas parásitas, ± sin clorofila, los tallos como hilos anaranjados o blancuzcos. Hojas simples, reducidas a escamas, no lobuladas, enteras a irregularmente aserruladas, glabras en ambas caras. Infls. cimosas o (raramente) de 1 fl. solitaria. Fls. con los sépalos separados o basalmente connatos en un tubo, ± iguales, redondeados a acuminados en el ápice, glabros; corola blanca a café claro o cobre, campanulada a urceolada, lobulada ± hasta el tubo, glabra a puberulento-papilosa, con escamas infraestaminales fimbriadas; estambres incluidos o exertos; anteras rectas; estilos 2 separados; estigmas capitados. Frs. capsulares (dehiscentes por una línea circular basal) o ± abayados (indehiscentes); semillas 1–4, café claro a casi negras, glabras.

  • Provided by: [I].Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
  • Herbs parasitic, yellow or reddish, glabrous. Stems twining, filiform, obtaining nourishment from hosts by haustoria. Leaves reduced to minute scales. Flowers sessile or short pedicellate, mostly in globular, spicate, racemose, or cymose clusters, 4- or 5-merous; bracts minute or absent. Calyx gamosepalous, ± deeply lobed, or sepals free. Corolla white, pinkish, or cream colored, urceolate, tubular, globose or campanulate, inside with fimbriate or crenulate, membranous, infrastaminal scales at base of tube. Stamens as many as corolla lobes, inserted on corolla above scales, alternating with corolla lobes. Pollen smooth. Ovary 2-loculed; ovules 2 per locule. Styles 1 or 2; stigmas 2, subglobose or elongated, sometimes united. Capsule ovoid or globose, dry or sometimes fleshy, circumscissile or opening irregularly. Seeds 1-4, glabrous; embryo acotyledonous, filiform spiral-curved.

  • Provided by: [H].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 15
    • ]. 

    "Characters of the family. 100, cosmop. (Grammica) Our spp. bloom in late summer; most have a wide range of hosts."

  • Provided by: [D].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 18
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Embryo and seedling thread-like, without cotyledons.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Leaves reduced to scales

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Twining herbaceous parasites, annual or rarely perennial in host-tissues; free living for a brief period after germination until attachment to the host isaccomplished

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Fruit a capsule, splitting round the base or remaining closed

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Stigmas capitate or linear

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Seeds subglobose or angular, granular

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Inflorescences lax or compact cymose clusters; flowers sessile or shortly pedicelled

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Sepals 4–5, united at the base

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Plant yellowish or reddish, practically devoid of chlorophyll, affixed to the host by means of haustoria

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Ovary 2-locular, each loculus with 2 ovules

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Styles 2, free or united into a single column

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Corolla-lobes 4–5, united into a tube at the base

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Stamens 4–5, inserted at the throat and alternating with the corolla-lobes; a whorl of thin fringed scales opposite to and below the stamens is present in most species

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Caractères de la famille.\n\t\t\t\tGenre cosmopolite mais surtout bien représenté dans les pays chauds, comprenant environ 140 espèces. Pour la Flore : 7 espèces et 1 variété.

  • Provided by: [F].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    • Source: [
    • 19
    • ]. 

    Habit

    Vines

  • Provided by: [E].Flora de Panama
  • Distribution

    A genus of 140-150 species of worldwide distribution.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora de Panama
  • Included Species

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Cabello de ángel, Fideos

      Bibliography

     Information From

    Convolvulaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • C
    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • D Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • E Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    https://www.floredafriquecentrale.be
    • F http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • G Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • H Missouri Botanical Garden
    Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Costa%20Rica
    Hammel, B. E.; Grayum, M. H.; Herrera, C.; Zamora, N. Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2003-2014
    • I Missouri Botanical Garden
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • J CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).