Dianthus L.
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 409. 1753. (1 May 1753)
  • Pink, carnation, oeillet [Greek dios, divine, and anthos, flower, alluding to beauty or fragrance]


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Dianthus L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000011319. Accessed on: 24 Oct 2021'

General Information

Herbs perennial, rarely annual. Roots sometimes woody. Stems mostly caespitose, terete or angular, articulated, dilated at nodes. Leaves opposite, usually glaucescent, linear or lanceolate, veins parallel, base slightly connate, margin scabrid. Flowers solitary, several in a loose cyme, or numerous and clustered into capitula, subtended by 1--4 pairs of appressed bracts. Calyx cylindric, apically 5-toothed, veins 7, 9, or 11, without scarious commissures. Petals 5, purple, red, pink, or white; claw long; limb dentate or lacerate, rarely entire. Stamens 10. Ovary 1-loculed; ovules numerous. Gynophore long. Styles 2. Capsule cylindric, suboblong, or rarely ovoid, dehiscing by 4 teeth or valves. Seeds dorsiventrally compressed, orbicular or discoid, flat or concave; embryo erect; albumen eccentric.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Herbs, perennial (D. armeria annual or biennial), sometimes mat-forming. Taproots stout, rhizomes (when present) slender or stout. Stems erect or ascending, simple or branched, terete or angled. Leaves connate proximally into sheath, petiolate (basal leaves) or sessile; blade 1-veined, linear or oblong to ovate, apex acute. Inflorescences terminal, open cymes, dense bracteate clusters or heads, or flowers solitary; bracts paired, herbaceous to scarious, or absent; involucel bracteoles 1-3 pairs, herbaceous or scarious. Pedicels erect in fruit. Flowers: sepals connate proximally into tube, 10-22 mm, tube green or reddish, 20-60-veined, ± cylindric, terete, commissures between sepals absent, lobes green or reddish, 3-8-veined, triangular to lanceolate, shorter than tube, margins white or reddish, mostly scarious, apex acute or obtuse; petals often pink or red, sometimes white or purple, sometimes spotted or with darker center, clawed, auricles absent, coronal appendages absent, blade apex dentate or fimbriate to 1/ 2 of length; nectaries at filament bases; stamens 10, adnate with petals to carpophore; filaments distinct; staminodes absent; ovary 1-locular; styles 2, filiform, 0.7-6 mm, glabrous proximally; stigmas 2, linear along adaxial surface of styles, papillate (30×). Capsules ovoid to cylindric, opening by 4 teeth; carpophore present. Seeds 40-100+, blackish brown, shield-shaped, dorsiventrally compressed, papillose-striate to papillate, marginal wing absent, appendage absent; embryo central, straight. x = 15.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    "Fls solitary or in open or capitate cymes; cal subtended by 1–3 pairs of bracts, cylindric, with 20 or more nerves; pet 5, without auricles or appendages; stamens 10; styles 2; capsule dehiscent by 4 teeth; seeds disciform, concave-convex, the hilum at the center of the concave surface; embryo straight; annual to perennial herbs. 300, Old World."

  • Provided by: [D].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Stamens 10, united at the base into a short ring.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Petals 5, claw of petal with two central longitudinal ridges (sometimes very inconspicuous).

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Annual, biennial or generally short-lived perennial, occasionally suffruticose herbs, generally with a woody tap root.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Capsule with 4 equal teeth.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Ovary ovoid, oblong or cylindric, placentation free-central; stigmas 2, free to base.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Calyx tubular, generally striate-nervose, 5-lobed, invested at the base by 1–12 pairs of calyx bracts.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Flowers solitary, fasciculate or clustered into heads.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Gynophore short.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Internode between calyx and corolla (anthophore) variable.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Leaves exstipulate, usually linear or linear-lanceolate.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Inflorescence cymose.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Petals 5, with a long narrow claw

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Stamens 10 in hermaphrodite flowers or abnormally reduced in number

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Ovary unilocular; styles 2, distinct from the base

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Inflorescences terminating the flowering stems, cymose, panicled, or variously aggregated-capitulate; a varying number of pairs of calycine bracts surrounding the calyx

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Capsule cylindrical, oblong, or ovoid, opening by four apical valves or teeth.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Calyx tubular, 5-toothed, with numerous longitudinal parallel veins

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Herbs or subshrubs

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Leaves exstipulate, generally “grass-like,” more or less connate at base forming a sheath above the often swollen nodes

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Included Species

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Pink, carnation, oeillet [Greek dios, divine, and anthos, flower, alluding to beauty or fragrance]

     Information From

    Caryophyllaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • B Flora of North America Association
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • C
    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • D Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • E
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • G CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).