Enicostema Blume
  • Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 848. 1825.


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Enicostema Blume. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000013462. Accessed on: 03 Jun 2020'

General Information

1. Enicostema Blume

Por R.L. Wilbur.

Hierbas perennes, erectas a rastreras, glabras, frecuentemente suculentas; tallos teretes a angulados, frecuentemente alados. Hojas todas caulinares, sésiles, ovadas a lanceoladas o lineares. Inflorescencias axilares y densamente agrupadas. Flores pequeñas, sésiles o casi sésiles, con una bráctea linear subyacente; perianto y androceo 5-partido; tubo del cáliz someramente campanulado o urceolado; lobos de la corola lanceolados; estambres insertados cerca de la mitad del tubo de la corola con una pequeña escama de 2 capuchones en la base de cada filamento filiforme, las anteras introrsas, oblongas, erectas, apiculadas y el polen en mónadas; ovario 1-locular con una placenta ligeramente proyectada hacia adentro, el estilo corto, el estigma capitado. Cápsulas septicidamente 2-valvadas y envueltas por el perianto marcescente; semillas numerosas, pequeñas, foveoladas. 3 spp. Nicaragua al N. de Sudamérica, Antillas, Viejo Mundo.

Bibliografía: Veldkamp, J.F. Blumea 16: 133-136 (1968). Raynal, A. Adansonia sér. 2, 9: 57-85 (1969).

La única especie en Mesoamérica es Enicostema verticillatum .

  • Provided by: [E].Flora Mesoamericana
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    ENICOSTEMA Blume

    Enicostema verticillatum (L.) Engl. ex Gilg in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4(2): 67. 1895; Gentiana verticillata L.

    Hierbas perennes, mayormente 20–60 cm de alto, a veces moderadamente ramificadas; tallos teretes hacia la base, tornándose 4-angulados hacia arriba y con frecuencia inconspicuamente alados con los márgenes menudamente serrulados. Hojas opuestas, en general angostamente elípticas, 4–8 cm de largo y 1–2 cm de ancho, más largas que los entrenudos, basalmente atenuadas y algo amplexicaules, generalmente algo suculentas pero tornándose cartáceas al secarse, 3-nervias. Fascículos verticilados, axilares, generalmente de 4–8 flores, fascículos abrazados por una bráctea linear, ca 4–6 mm de largo, flores sésiles, 5-meras; tubo del cáliz urceolado, ca 2 mm de largo, lobos angostamente lanceolados a subulados, 2–4 mm de largo, patentes o recurvados en el ápice, carinados; corola más o menos cilíndrica, 6–8 mm de largo, blanca o crema, lobos ovados, 1.5–2 mm de largo y 0.5–1 mm de ancho en la base, agudos; estambres incluidos, filamentos aplanados y adheridos en la mitad superior del tubo de la corola, anteras ca 1.5 mm de largo, marcadamente apiculadas; ovario 1-locular, elipsoide, 1.6–1.8 mm de largo, estilo ca 1 mm de largo, estigma capitado, ca 0.5 mm de diámetro. Cápsula elipsoide, 3.5–4 mm de largo, rodeada por el perianto marcescente y rostrada por el estilo persistente; semillas diminutas, foveoladas.

    Poco frecuente en matorrales costeros y pantanos, costa atlántica; 0–20 m; fl y fr oct; Stevens 10703, 20789; sur de Nicaragua a Panamá y en las Antillas. Un género con 3 especies en los trópicos de ambos hemisferios.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora de Nicaragua
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    Herbs, perennial, erect, rarely creeping, occasionally branched at the base, glabrous throughout; stems terete to angulate, frequently winged, often suc- culent. Leaves cauline, narrowly ovate to linear, sessile, often succulent. Inflores- cences + dense, axillary-clustered. Flowers small, 5-merous, sessile to subsessile; calyx narrowly campanulate to urceolate, carinate, the lobes narrowly ovate, fused at the base; corolla cylindrical becoming infundibular above, the lobes small, contorted, ? lax; stamens inserted at the middle of the corolla tube, the filaments filiform with a small double-hooded scale at the base, the anthers introrse, ob- long, erect, apiculate; pistil usually included, the ovary 1-locular, the placenta slightly intruded, the style short, the stigma capitate. Capsules septicidally 2- valved; seeds tiny, the testa foveolate. Chromosone number x = 19. Pollen grains in monads, radially symmetrical, isopolar, suboblate to oblate spheroidal, the amb rounded-triangular, 24-26 x 26-31 u, 3-colporate, the colpi short with acute or obtuse ends, the colpus membrane smooth, ora rounded to lolongate, well delimited, the diameter of apocolpia 20 u; exine 2 u thick; sexine as thick as nexine or thinner, finely reticulate or OL-pattern (E. verticillatum).

  • Provided by: [D].Flora de Panama
  • Morphology

    Annual or perennial herbs rarely suffrutescent.

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    Stems erect, simple or branched at the base.

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    Leaves sessile or narrowed into a petiole-like base, oblong-lanceolate to linear, usually the lower ones larger, entire 3-nerved.

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    Flowers (3)4–5(6)-merous, in axillary clusters.

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    Calyx with 3 short basal glands, irregular, rarely subregular by reduction of two lobes; tube campanulate; lobes ovate-lanceolate, obovate to subcircular or triangular-lanceolate.

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    Seeds numerous, subglobose, faveolate.

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    Capsule obovoid, septicidally, bivalved.

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    Ovary narrowly ellipsoid, unilocular; ovules numerous; style shorter than the ovary, subulate; stigma subcapitate.

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    Stamens inserted in the corolla tube; filaments with a double-hooded scale at the base; anthers erect, not twisted, acute.

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    Corolla regular, tubuliform; lobes patent at anthesis, shorter than the tube.

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    Stem simple or branched from the base, erect, robust, glabrous or rarely covered by minute hairs, 4-angled, ridges narrowly winged, wings minutely scabrid-denticulate

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Annual or perennial herb, sometimes suffrutescent

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    Corolla tube distinct; lobes shorter than the tube

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    Leaves sessile, opposite, usually glabrous

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    Inflorescences axillary, very congested and proliferating (polytelic), flowers maturing acropetally

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    Flowers (3–)5(–6)-merous, sessile, regular

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    Calyx tubular; lobes unequal, margin scabrid-denticulate

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    Ovary ellipsoid, 2-locular; style subulate; stigma ± capitate

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    Filaments with two coronas of scales (hoods) at the base, inserted on the corolla tube; anthers oblong, versatile

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    Seeds numerous, ± globose, surface reticulate-pitted to ± reticulate.

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    Capsule ellisoid or obovoid, dehiscing septicidally, bivalved

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    Habit

    Herbs

  • Provided by: [D].Flora de Panama
  • Distribution

    A small genus of 3 species in tropical regions of both hemispheres.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora de Panama
  • Synonyms

     Information From

    Gentianaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • B
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • C
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Mesoamericana
    http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/fm/
    Gerrit Davidse, Mario Sousa Sánchez, A. O. Chater, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Instituto de Biología, Missouri Botanical Garden, Natural History Museum (London, England) UNAM, 1994
    • E Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • G CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).