Festuca L.
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 73. 1753. (1 May 1753)


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Festuca L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000014703. Accessed on: 21 Sep 2020'

General Information

27. Festuca L.

Helleria Fourn, Hellerochloa Rauschert

Por G. Davidse.

Perennes, cespitosas o rizomatosas. Vainas con los márgenes libres o parcialmente unidos; lígula una membrana; láminas lineares, aplanadas a involutas. Inflorescencia una panícula abierta a contraída. Espiguillas comprimidas lateralmente, con 2-numerosos flósculos bisexuales; desarticulación por encima de las glumas y entre los flósculos; glumas a menudo subiguales, generalmente más cortas que los flósculos más inferiores, la inferior 1(3)-nervia, la superior 1(3)-nervia, generalmente lanceolada; lemas lanceoladas, carinadas a redondeadas en el dorso, 5-nervias, generalmente aristadas desde el ápice, a menudo sin arista o la arista subterminal desde un ápice 2-denticulado o entero, el callo glabro, generalmente bien desarrollado; páleas por lo general escasamente más cortas que las lemas; flores bisexuales (Mesoamérica); estambres 3; ovario glabro o hispídulo en el ápice; estilos 2, apicales. Fruto una cariopsis, adherente a la lema y pálea o libre; embrión 1/ 10-1/5 la longitud de la cariopsis; hilo linear. Aprox. 450 spp. Ártico a regiones templadas del mundo, extendiéndose a las altas montañas tropicales.

Las dimensiones de la espiguilla excluyen las aristas. Las de la lema se refieren a los dos flósculos más inferiores en la espiguilla. La longitud de la rama más inferior se refiere a la más larga si las ramas son pareadas o verticiladas. Las descripciones de las trabas del esclerénquima y de las células buliformes se basan en cortes transversales de la lámina.

Dos especies europeas, Festuca arvernensis Auq., Kerguélen et Markgr.- Dann. y F. heterophylla Lam., han sido introducidas en Guatemala para fines experimentales, pero se desconoce si se han naturalizado.

Bibliografía: Alekseev, E.B. Bot. Zurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 66: 1492-1501 (1981); 67: 1289-1292 (1982).

  • Provided by: [F].Flora Mesoamericana
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Densely tufted perennials with flat or loosely involute blades and narrow or open panicles. Spikelets few- to several-flowered, the rachilla disarticulating above the glumes and between the florets; glumes narrow, unequal, the first 1-nerved, the second 3-nerved; lemmas rounded on the back, awnless or awned from the tip; palea not adhering to the caryopsis.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Hierbas cespitosas a rizomatosas. Hojas con la vaina auriculada o no, los márgenes libres o muy levementeunidos en la base; lígula una membrana; lámina linear, aplanada a involuta. Infl. una panícula. Espiguillas com-primidas lateralmente; desarticulación por encima de las glumas; glumas subiguales, 1(–3)-nervadas, máscortas que los flósculos más inferiores; flósculos numerosos, bisexuales; lemas lanceoladas, carinadas o re-dondeadas dorsalmente, 5-nervadas, con o sin aristas, el callo glabro; páleas por lo general más cortas que laslemas.

  • Provided by: [G].Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Perennials, tufted, shoots extra- or intra-vaginal. Leaf sheath margins usually free, rarely connate, sometimes with auricles; leaf blades folded to conduplicate and filiform, sometimes flat; ligule membranous. Inflorescence an open, contracted or spikelike panicle. Spikelets with 2 to several florets, uppermost floret usually reduced; rachilla usually scabrid, rarely smooth or pubescent; disarticulating above glumes and between florets; glumes usually unequal, herbaceous to scarious, rarely subleathery, lower glume often small, 1-veined, upper glume usually shorter than lowest lemma, 3(–5)-veined; lemmas usually similar in texture to glumes, often subleathery at least with age, usually ± laterally compressed but not keeled, rounded on back at least toward base, usually 5-veined, veins sometimes prominent, apex acuminate, entire or notched, awned or awnless; palea subequal to lemma, keels scabrid, rarely smooth. Stamens 3. Ovary glabrous or hairy on top. Caryopsis oblong or linear, usually ventrally sulcate, usually free from lemma and palea, hilum long-linear. x = 7.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    "Spikelets 2–15-fld, the rachilla disarticulating above the glumes and between the lemmas; glumes narrow, unequal, 1–3(–5)-veined, usually shorter than the lemmas; lemmas membranous or often indurate, rounded on the back, obscurely 5-veined, acute or acuminate, usually awned from the tip, sometimes awnless; upper lemmas considerably reduced; palea about equaling the lemma; stamens 3; grain obovoid-oblong; open-pollinated, tufted perennials; infl an open to contracted panicle. 200+, widespread in temp. and cool regions."

  • Provided by: [C].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 12
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Lemmas lanceolate, (3-)5-(7)nerved, herbaceous to subcoriaceous, dorsally rounded or rarely somewhat keeled towards the apex, usually awned or with an awn-point from the apex, rarely awnless or awned dorsally from below the apex.

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Paleas as long as or slightly shorter than the corresponding lemmas, 2-keeled, usually with the apex 2-dentate, thinly membranous or hyaline, with the keels scaberulous or ciliolate.

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Lodicules 2, entire or asymmetrically 2-lobed.

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Stamens 3.

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Ovary glabrous or sometimes with the apex pubescent; styles 2, laterally exserted.

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Spikelets several-many-flowered, laterally compressed, pedicelled, solitary; rhachilla slender, slightly elongated, disarticulating above the glumes and between the florets.

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Caryopsis usually elongate, usually free but tightly enclosed by the lemma and the palea, dorsally compressed and grooved; embryo small, not reaching 1/3 the length of the caryopsis; hilum basal.

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Caespitose perennials, often rhizomatous.

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Leaf-laminae folded or convolute, often setaceous, rarely expanded.

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Inflorescence an open or contracted panicle.

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Florets clearly exserted from the glumes, hermaphrodite but the uppermost one usually reduced; callus small, annular, usually glabrous.

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Ligule scarious or sometimes membranous, usually entire.

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Glumes subequal, sometimes the inferior smaller, herbaceous to subcoriaceous, keeled; the inferior 1-3-nerved; the superior 3-nerved.

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Included Species

     Information From

    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • A Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • B
    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • C Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • E Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Mesoamericana
    http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/fm/
    Gerrit Davidse, Mario Sousa Sánchez, A. O. Chater, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Instituto de Biología, Missouri Botanical Garden, Natural History Museum (London, England) UNAM, 1994
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
    Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Costa%20Rica
    Hammel, B. E.; Grayum, M. H.; Herrera, C.; Zamora, N. Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2003-2014
    • G Missouri Botanical Garden
    Poaceae
    • H CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • I CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).