Flueggea Willd.
  • Sp. Pl. 4(2): 637, 757[as Fluggea]–758. 1806. (Apr 1806)
  • Bushweed [For Johannes Flüggé, 1775–1816, German botanist]


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Flueggea Willd. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000014884. Accessed on: 26 Oct 2021'

General Information

Shrubs [trees], usually dioecious, rarely monoecious, glabrous [pubescent, hairs simple]; branching not phyllanthoid. Leaves deciduous [persistent], alternate, simple, all well developed; stipules deciduous [persistent]; blade margins entire. Inflorescences unisexual, fascicles [racemes or panicles, or pistillate flowers solitary]. Pedicels present. Staminate flowers: sepals [4–]5[–7], distinct; petals 0; nectary extrastaminal, [4–]5[–7] glands [annular, lobed]; stamens [4–]5[–7]; filaments distinct; connectives not extending beyond anthers; pistillode [2–]3-divided nearly to base [absent]. Pistillate flowers: sepals persistent, [4–]5[–7], distinct; petals 0; nectary annular, entire [angled or lobed]; pistil [2–]3[–4]-carpellate; styles [2–]3[–4], connate proximally, 2-fid. Fruits berries [capsules]. Seeds 2 per locule, rounded-trigonous; seed coat dry, reticulate or finely verrucose [smooth]; caruncle absent. x = 13.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Erect shrubs or small trees, dioecious, rarely monoecious; branchlets sometimes spine-tipped, indumentum of simple hairs, often absent. Leaves alternate, often distichous; petiole short; leaf blade simple, margin entire or serrulate, venation pinnate. Inflorescences axillary, 1-flowered, fascicled, or cymose; bracts obscure. Male flowers: pedicels long and slender; sepals 4-7, imbricate, margins entire or serrulate; petals absent; disk of 4-7 segments, these sometimes connivent or fused; stamens 4-7, inserted at base of disk, longer than sepals; filaments free; anthers 2-locular, erect, extrorse, longitudinally dehiscent; pistillode small, 2- or 3-lobed. Female flowers: pedicels terete or angular; sepals as in male; disk saucer-shaped or patelliform, sometimes thickened, entire or lobed; ovary (2 or)3(or 4)-locular; ovules 2 per locule; styles free, spreading, apex bifid or entire. Fruit a capsule, globose or trigonous, dehiscent into 3 cocci or indehiscent and ± berrylike; columella and sepals persistent; locules usually 2-seeded. Seeds usually 3-angled; testa thin, crustaceous, smooth to reticulate or verruculose, sometimes adaxially invaginated at hilum; endosperm copious; embryo straight to distinctly curved, lacking chlorophyll; cotyledons broader and much longer than radical.

  • Provided by: [A].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Dioecious or rarely monoecious trees or shrubs, usually without indumentum

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Flowers axillary, usually in the proximal axils of leafy branches, the males numerous, fasciculate, the females few or occasionally solitary

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Leaves alternate, shortly petiolate, stipulate, simple, entire, penninerved

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Seeds 2 per locule, trigonous, dorsally convex, often invaginated, usually smooth, ecarunculate; testa fairly thick, crustaceous; albumen rather scanty; embryo usually incurved; cotyledons ovate, elliptic or obovate, flat.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Fruit slightly or scarcely fleshy, usually loculicidally dehiscent; endocarp crustaceous, 3-locular or rarely 2- or 1-locular by abortion

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Female flowers: pedicels and sepals as in the ♂ flowers; petals 0; disc flat, annular, entire or shallowly 5–6-lobed; ovary smooth, (2–)3(–4)-locular, with 2 ovules per locule; styles (2–)3(–4), connate at the base, recurved or spreading, bifid or bilobate

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Male flowers: pedicels capillary; sepals (4–)5(–7), unequal, imbricate; petals 0; disc-glands (4–)5(–7), interstaminal, alternating with the sepals; stamens (4–)5(–7), filaments free, anthers extrorse, longitudinally dehiscent; pistillode usually large, deeply 2–3-partite, the divisions often appendiculate or bilobate

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Dioecious, or rarely monoecious, usually glabrous trees or shrubs.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Leaves alternate, shortly petiolate, stipulate, simple, entire, penninerved, usually deciduous.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Flowers axillary, the males numerous and fasciculate, the females few or solitary.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Male flowers: pedicels capillary; sepals (4)5(7), unequal, imbricate; petals absent; disk glands (4)5(7), interstaminal, alternating with the sepals; stamens (4)5(7), filaments free, anthers extrorse, longitudinally dehiscent; pistillode usually large, 2–3-partite, the arms often appendiculate or 2-lobed.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Female flowers: pedicels and sepals as in the male ; petals absent; disk flat, annular, entire or shallowly 5–6-lobed; ovary smooth, glabrous, (2)3(4)-locular, ovules 2 per locule, hemitropous; styles (2)3(4), connate at the base, recurved or spreading, bifid or 2-lobed.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Fruit 3-lobed (4-lobed)-subglobose, fleshy and indehiscent or dry and loculicidally dehiscent; exocarp fleshy or thin; endocarp crustaceous, 3-locular or rarely by abortion 2- or 1-locular; columella persistent (not persistent in African taxa).

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Seeds 2 per locule, or 1 by abortion, trigonous, dorsally convex, hilum often invaginated, ecarunculate; testa smooth or occasionally reticulate or verruculose, thick or thin, crustaceous; albumen scanty or copious; embryo straight or curved; cotyledons ovate, elliptic or obovate, flat, longer than the radicle.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCE Webster, G. L. 1984. A revision of Flueggea (Euphorbiaceae). Allertonia 3: 259–312.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Bushweed [For Johannes Flüggé, 1775–1816, German botanist]

     Information From

    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • A Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • B Flora of North America Association
    Phyllanthaceae
    • C CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • D
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • E
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • F CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).