Frangula Mill.
  • Gard. Dict. Abr. (ed. 4) vol. 1. 1754.
  • Buckthorn [Probably from Latin frango, to break, and -ula, diminutive, alluding to brittleness of twigs]


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Frangula Mill. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000015013. Accessed on: 24 Oct 2021'

General Information

5. Frangula Mill.

Por A. Pool

Árboles o arbustos, erectos; plantas inermes; yemas sin escamas. Hojas alternas (rara vez algunas opuestas, no en Mesoamérica), pinnatinervias, las nervaduras laterales sin franjas, sin glándulas en la unión de la lámina con el pecíolo, los márgenes en general dentados, cada diente con una pequeña glándula apical (algunas veces fácilmente caediza); pecioladas; estípulas libres, dispuestas lateralmente en la base del pecíolo, no lobadas. Inflorescencias axilares, en cimas pedunculadas simples o brevemente compuestas con la primera rama marcadamente divaricada o de apariencia más o menos umbeliforme, o hasta una cima compuesta con uno de los brazos de la cima umbeliforme y el otro brazo continuando a modo de raquis el cual desarrolla otro agregado umbeliforme, o un fascículo sésil, o las flores solitarias (rara vez racimosas, no en Mesoamérica), las flores pediceladas, las bractéolas en la base de los pedicelos, generalmente desaparecen antes de la antesis. Flores bisexuales, 5-meras; hipanto tubular, infundibuliforme o campanulado, circuncísil o no circuncísil; sépalos triangulares, adaxialmente carinados, los sépalos, pétalos y filamentos de los estambres se pierden junto con la 1/2 apical del hipanto circuncísil o, con menos frecuencia, el hipanto no circuncísil y los sépalos, pétalos y filamentos de los estambres tardía e irregularmente desprendiéndose a lo largo del borde del hipanto; pétalos generalmente más cortos que los sépalos a tan largos como estos, cóncavos, con una uña igual o más corta que el limbo, el limbo apicalmente emarginado a profundamente bilobado, blanco o verdoso-blanco, formando una caperuza sobre las anteras o doblado lateralmente alrededor de los estambres en la antesis; estambres opuestos a los pétalos, escasamente más largos que los pétalos al madurar; disco revistiendo la superficie interna del hipanto, hipógino, relativamente delgado, nectarífero, glabro, entero; ovario súpero, (2)3-locular, el estilo entero, los estigmas (2)3, pequeños. Drupas carnosas, globosas u obovoides, con (2)3 líneas frecuentemente obvias cuando jóvenes, con (2)3 pirenos indehiscentes; semillas 1 por pireno, la semilla con un engrosamiento cartilaginoso duro que se proyecta a través de la apertura basal del pireno como 2 cornículos curvados hacia adentro formando un rostro. Aprox. 50 spp., Canadá, Estados Unidos, México, Mesoamérica, Sudamérica, Europa, Asia.

Johnston y Johnston (1978) trataron Frangula como un subgénero de Rhamnus. Frangula se reconoce en este tratamiento a nivel genérico con base a estudios moleculares (Bolmgren y Oxelman, 2004) y a las numerosas diferencias morfológicas resumidas en Pool (2013). Las características que lo distinguen más consistentemente son los pirenos indehiscentes y las semillas sin surcos con un engrosamiento proyectado desde la base del pireno en

  • Provided by: [B].Flora Mesoamericana
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Frangula Mill. Trees or shrubs, erect, plants unarmed, bud scales absent. Leaves alternate (rarely some opposite, not in Mesoamerica), petiolate, venation pinnate, lateral veins without stripes, without glands at junction of leaf blade and petiole, margins generally toothed, each tooth with a small apical gland (sometimes easily dislodged), stipules free, borne laterally at base of petiole, un-lobed. Inflorescences axillary, pedunculate simple or a briefly compound cyme with first branch strongly divaricate or appearing more or less umbelliform or a compound cyme with one arm of cyme umbelliform and the other arm continuing as a rachis which develops another umbelliform cluster, or sessile fascicles of flowers, or flowers solitary, flowers pedicellate, bracteoles at base of pedicels, usually lost before anthesis. Flowers bisexual, 5-merous. Hypanthium tubular, funnelform or campanulate, circumscissile or not. Sepals triangular, adaxially keeled, sepals, petals and stamen filaments lost with apical half of circumscissile hypanthium or, less frequently, hypanthium not circumscissile and sepals, petals and stamen filaments tardily and irregularly dehiscing along rim of hypanthium. Petals usually smaller or equal to sepals in length, concave, claw equal or shorter than limb, limb apically emarginated to deeply bi-lobed, white or greenish-white, forming hoods over anthers or folded laterally around stamens at anthesis. Stamens opposite petals, slightly longer than petals at maturity.Disk lining the inner surface of the hypanthium, hypogynous, relatively thin, nectiferous, glabrous, entire. Ovary superior, 3- (rarely 2-) locular, style entire, stigmas 3 (rarely 2), small. Fruit fleshy drupe, globose or obovoid,with 3 (rarely 2) lines often obvious when young, with 3 (rarely 2) indehiscent stones,seeds 1 per stone, the seed with a hard cartilaginous thickening that protrudes through a basal opening in the stone with two inward curving horns as a beak-like rostrum.Aprox. 50 species, Canada to S. America, Europe, and Asia; 1 species with 2 varieties is known from Nicaragua and another species is expected. Johnston and Johnston (1978) treated Frangula as a subgenus in the genus Rhamnus. Frangula is recognized at the generic level here based on molecular studies (Bolmgren and Oxelman, 2004) and the numerous morphological differences summarized in Johnston and Johnston (1978). The most consistent distinguishing characteristics are the indehiscent stones and unfurrowed seeds with basal thickenings exserted from base of stone of Frangula and the dehiscent stones and furrowed seeds totally included in stone before dehiscence and without thickened bases of Rhamnus. Other characters include naked buds of Frangula, thorns never present, leaves alternate (some leaves opposite in F. granulosa (Ruiz & Pav.) Grubov), flowers always bisexual, 5-merous, sepals fleshy and distinctly keeled, petals present, style simple with stigma 3-lobed (usually briefly so), ovary usually 3-locular vs. in Rhamnus bud scales present,thorns sometimes present, leaves opposite or alternate, flowers often unisexual, flowers 4 or 5 merous, sepals chartaceous and not distinctly keeled, petals often absent or reduced in pistillate flowers, style usually deeply 2—4 cleft, and ovary 2---4 locular. All but four species of Frangula in the New World have the hypanthium circumscissile, a feature not seen in the New World species of Rhamnus. Added AP 19 Aug. 2013. M.C. Johnston y L.A. Johnston. Rhamnus. Fl. Neotrop. 20: 1–96. 1978;A. Pool. New Species and combinations in Neotropical and northern Mexican species of Frangula Miller (Rhamnaceae). Novon In

  • Provided by: [A].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Shrubs or trees, unarmed; bud scales absent, buds hairy. Leaves usually deciduous, sometimes persistent, alternate [rarely opposite], rarely fascicled on short shoots; blade not gland-dotted; pinnately veined, secondary veins nearly straight, parallel. Inflorescences axillary, within foliage, umbels or fascicles, or flowers solitary; peduncles and pedicels not fleshy in fruit. Pedicels present. Flowers bisexual; hypanthium cup-shaped, 1–3 mm wide, usually circumscissile far below sepal bases, rarely not circumscissile; sepals (rarely 4–)5, usually ± erect, sometimes spreading, yellowish to green or white, ovate-triangular, fleshy, keeled adaxially; petals (rarely 4–)5, yellowish, hooded, broadly obovate to obcordate, clawed; nectary thin, lining hypanthium; stamens (rarely 4–)5; ovary superior, (2–)3-locular; style 1. Fruits drupes; stones 2–3(–4), indehiscent but open at base. Seeds obovoid to lenticular, with cartilaginous beak protruding through opening in stone, not furrowed. x = 20–26.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Buckthorn [Probably from Latin frango, to break, and -ula, diminutive, alluding to brittleness of twigs]

     Information From

    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • A Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Mesoamericana
    http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/fm/
    Gerrit Davidse, Mario Sousa Sánchez, A. O. Chater, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Instituto de Biología, Missouri Botanical Garden, Natural History Museum (London, England) UNAM, 1994
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • C Flora of North America Association
    Rhamnaceae
    • D CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • E CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).