Herbs perennial, bulbiferous. Bulbs with (1 or)2 or 3(or more) fleshy, farinaceous scales, often covered with a translucent tunic, sometimes also with numerous small bulbels. Stem erect, simple, leafy. Basal leaves petiolate; cauline leaves sessile, spirally alternate, opposite, or whorled; leaf blade oblong to lanceolate. Inflorescence 1- to several flowered, racemose or umbellate; bracts (floral leaves) usually present. Flowers bisexual, usually nodding, campanulate to saucer-shaped. Tepals 6, free, often tessellated with dark and light colors, with a nectary near base adaxially. Stamens 6, inserted at base of tepals; anthers basifixed, rarely dorsifixed. Style 3-lobed or subentire, caducous; stigmas linear or very short. Fruit a capsule, erect, 3-loculed, 6-angled, winged or wingless, loculicidal. Seeds arranged in 2 rows in each valve, flat.
Herbs, perennial, bulbose; bulbs with 1–several large fleshy scales and 0–many small scales (often called rice-grain bulblets). Stem 1, erect, simple, absent in nonflowering individuals. Leaves alternate or whorled proximally in some species, sessile; blade linear to ± ovate; nonflowering individuals with single elliptical, ovate, or obovate “bulb-leaf.” Inflorescences loosely racemose, bracteate; bracts leaflike. Flowers 1–many, usually nodding, 3-merous; perianth hypogynous, campanulate or cupulate; tepals 6, in 2 similar whorls, distinct, nectaries present on all tepals, but better developed on inner ones; stamens 6, included; anthers adnate to filaments near middle; ovary superior, ± sessile; style unbranched or 3-branched. Fruits capsular, 3-locular, 6-angled or -winged, thin-walled, ± rounded, dehiscence loculicidal. Seeds many, in 2 rows per locule, yellowish to brownish, flat. x = 12, 13, often with chromosome fragments.
Beck, C. H. 1951. Fritillaries: A Gardener’s Introduction to the Genus Fritillaria. London. Beetle, D. F. 1944. A monograph of the North American species of Fritillaria. Madroño 7: 133–159. Farrens, B. M. 1947. A Taxonomic Study of the North American Species of Fritillaria. M.A. thesis. Stanford University. Marchant, C. J. 1981. Fritillaria in British Columbia. Davidsonia 12: 19–25. Rix, E. M. and D. Rast. 1975. Nectar sugars and subgeneric classification in Fritillaria. Biochem. Syst. & Ecol. 2: 207–209. Santana, D. O. 1984. Morphological and Anatomical Observations on the Bulbs and Tepals of Fritillaria (Liliaceae) Section Liliorhiza (Kellogg) Watson, Their Taxonomic Implications with a Synopsis and the Reproductive Biology of the Section. Ph.D. dissertation. University of California, Davis. Stapf, O. 1934. Lilium, Notholirion and Fritillaria. Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1934: 94–96. Turner, N. J. and H. V. Kuhnlein. 1983. Camas (Camassia spp.) and riceroot (Fritillaria spp.): Two liliaceous “root” foods of the Northwest Coast Indians. Ecol. Food Nutr. 13: 199–219. Turrill, W. B. 1950. Character combinations and distribution in the genus Fritillaria and allied genera. Evolution 4: 1–6. Turrill, W. B. and J. R. Sealy. 1980. Studies in the genus Fritillaria (Liliaceae). Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 39.
|Fritillary [Latin, fritillus, checkered, alluding to the markings on the tepals of many species]|