Galium L.
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 105. 1753. (1 May 1753)


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Galium L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000015241. Accessed on: 08 Jul 2020'

General Information

Subshrubs to perennial or annual herbs. Stems often weak and clambering, often notably prickly or "sticky" (i.e., retrorsely aculeolate, "velcro-like"). Raphides present. Leaves opposite, mostly with leaflike stipules in whorls of 4, 6, or more, usually sessile or occasionally petiolate, without domatia, abaxial epidermis sometimes punctate- to striate-glandular, mostly with 1 main nerve, occasionally triplinerved or palmately veined; stipules interpetiolar and usually leaflike, sometimes reduced. Inflorescences mostly terminal and axillary (sometimes only axillary), thyrsoid to paniculiform or subcapitate, cymes several to many flowered or infrequently reduced to 1 flower, pedunculate to sessile, bracteate or bracts reduced especially on higher order axes [or bracts sometimes leaflike and involucral], bracteoles at pedicels lacking. Flowers mostly bisexual and monomorphic, hermaphroditic, sometimes unisexual, andromonoecious, occasionally polygamo-dioecious or dioecious, pedicellate to sessile, usually quite small. Calyx with limb nearly always reduced to absent; hypanthium portion fused with ovary. Corolla white, yellow, yellow-green, green, more rarely pink, red, dark red, or purple, rotate to occasionally campanulate or broadly funnelform; tube sometimes so reduced as to give appearance of free petals, glabrous inside; lobes (3 or)4(or occasionally 5), valvate in bud. Stamens (3 or)4(or occasionally 5), inserted on corolla tube near base, exserted; filaments developed to ± reduced; anthers dorsifixed. Inferior ovary 2-celled, ± didymous, ovoid, ellipsoid, or globose, smooth, papillose, tuberculate, or with hooked or rarely straight trichomes, 1 erect and axile ovule in each cell; stigmas 2-lobed, exserted. Fruit on pedicels sometimes elongating during development, green, gray, or infrequently white (to red, orange, or black), mostly dry to leathery schizocarps, infrequently spongy, rarely ± fleshy and berrylike, ellipsoid to subglobose; schizocarps separating into 2 indehiscent mericarps, each with 1 seed, subglobose, ellipsoid-oblong, or reniform, smooth and glabrous to tuberculate and/or covered with trichomes often hooked and clinging; seeds small, grooved ventrally (i.e., adaxially); testa membranous; endosperm corneous; embryo curved; cotyledons leaflike; radicle terete, inferior.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
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    • ]. 

    49. Galium L.

    Galium sect. Relbunium Endl., Relbunium (Endl.) Benth. et Hook. f.

    Por D.H. Lorence.

    Hierbasperennes o rara vez anuales, terrestres, inermes, tallos cuadrangulares, lasflores bisexuales y/o unisexuales, polígamas o dioicas. Hojas en verticilos de(3)4-8(-10), sésiles a subsésiles, isofilas, enteras o rara vez ásperas hastadenticuladas en los márgenes, sin domacios, 1-3-nervias, frecuentemente congrupos de células glandulares sobre todo hacia el ápice en el envés; estípulasaparentemente ausentes (frecuentemente consideradas alargadas, foliáceas yverticiladas con las hojas). Inflorescencias terminales o axilares, paniculadasa cimosas y bracteadas o las flores solitarias. Flores pediceladas o sésiles einvolucradas, homostilas; limbo calicino diminuto o ausente, sin calicofilos;corola rotácea a campanulada o urceolada, blanca, amarillenta, verdosa, rosadaa roja, glabra en el interior, glabra a puberulenta en el exterior, a veces congrupos de células glandulares hacia el ápice, los lobos (3)4(5), valvares, sinapéndices; estambres (3)4(5), exertos, las anteras dorsifijas; estigmas 2 enlos extremos de 2 ramitas del estilo, capitados,cortamente exertos; ovario 2-locular, los óvulos 1 por lóculo, basales.Frutos en esquizocarpos, dídimos o subglobosos, secos o carnosos, los mericarpos2 o frecuentemente con 1 de éstos abortivo, suborbiculares, lisos y glabros,tuberculados o densamente pelosos con tricomas rectos o uncinados; semillaselipsoidales, pegadas a la pared del fruto. Aprox. 300-400 spp., cosmopolita,bien representado en las zonas templadas de Eurasia, Norteamérica y México,también en zonas templadas y frías de elevaciones altas en regiones tropicales.

    Bibliografía:Dempster, L.T. Univ. Calif.Publ. Bot. 73: 1-33 (1978); Allertonia5: 283-345 (1990); Fl. Ecuador47: 21-35 (1993).

  • Provided by: [G].Flora Mesoamericana
    • Source: [
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    GALIUM L.; Relbunium (Endl.) Hook. f.

    Hierbas con tallos débiles, a veces con tricomas glandulares; plantas frecuentemente dioicas o poligamodioicas. Hojas verticiladas, subsésiles, sin domacios, aparentemente sin estípulas (las estípulas foliáceas), los nervios secundarios generalmente no evidentes. Flores solitarias o en cimas terminales y axilares, a veces bracteadas, bisexuales o unisexuales; limbo calicino ausente; corola campanulada a rotácea, lobos 4, valvares; ovario 2-locular, óvulo 1 por lóculo. Fruto seco o carnoso, dídimo, mericarpos 2, subglobosos a elipsoides, indehiscentes, a veces con tricomas alargados a uncinados.

    Género cosmopolita con unas 300–400 especies, típico de áreas frescas a frías; 2 especies en Nicaragua. Las hojas verticiladas aparentemente se componen de hojas y estípulas foliáceas muy similares a las hojas. El género Relbunium se distinguió de Galium por tener flores solitarias y sésiles o subsésiles abrazadas por un verticilo de brácteas foliáceas y frutos generalmente carnosos, pero Dempster demostró que frutos carnosos se encuentran en varias especies de ambos géneros con o sin involucro, y que el arreglo de las inflorescencias de las especies incluidas en Relbunium muestra una variación continua con las especies incluidas en Galium, por lo tanto es mejor considerar a Relbunium como un sinónimo. Varias otras especies de Galium que crecen en Honduras y Costa Rica posiblemente se pueden encontrar en Nicaragua, pero se distinguen de las especies nicaragüenses por sus hojas en verticilos de 4 (6), las flores con pedicelos desarrollados por encima de las hojas y las brácteas y los frutos secos. Otras especies que según Dempster se encuentran en México y Centroamérica, pero no especifica Nicaragua en su distribución, son: G. aschenbornii Schauer, de México a Panamá, que se distingue por sus frutos glabros y, entre las especies con frutos con tricomas uncinados, G. uncinulatum DC. de México a Panamá que se distingue por tener en sus hojas tricomas de 0.4 mm de largo o más largos y G. orizabense Hemsl. de Honduras y Costa Rica que se distingue por tener en sus hojas tricomas de hasta 0.2 mm de largo.

    L.T. Dempster. The genus Galium (Rubiaceae) in Mexico and Central America. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 73: 1–33. 1978; L.T. Dempster. The genus Galium (Rubiaceae) in South America. IV. Allertonia 5: 283–344. 1990.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
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    Erect or decumbent herbs or vines, the stems often 4-angled, slender. Leaves 3-4 or more at a node, verticillate; stipules foliaceous. Inflorescences terminal or axillary, in dichasial panicles, the flowers not subtended by an involucre. Flowers bisexual, unisexual or polygamous dioecious, pedicellate; hypanthium articulate with the pedicel; calycine cup ovoid or globose, the lobes reduced or absent; corolla white, yellow or green, the lobes 3-4, valvate in the bud; stamens 2-4, exserted, the styles 2, the stigmas capitate; ovary 2-celled, the ovules soli- tary. Fruits didymous, fleshy or dry, separating finally into closed segments or only one carpel maturing; seeds concave.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora de Panama
  • "Cal-lobes none; cor rotate, with (3)4 short lobes, varying in a few spp. to cupulate or funnelform with the lobes longer than or about equaling the tube; stamens mostly shorter than the cor; ovary bilocular, with a single axile ovule in each cell; styles 2, short; stigmas capitate; fr dry or seldom fleshy, of 2 globose or subglobose carpels, or one carpel abortive; each carpel indehiscent, 1-seeded, sometimes bristly; herbs with slender, 4-angled stems and whorled lvs, the small cymose fls ebracteolate, terminating the branches or axillary. 300, cosmop."

  • Provided by: [H].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
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    Morphology

    Ovary bilocular, one ovule in each chamber, crowned by an often 2-lobed disk; style branches 2, joined below; stigmas capitate.

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
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    Anthers exserted.

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
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    Fruit dry (in the Flora Zambesiaca area), glabrous or variously hairy, dehiscing into 2 (sub) globose or reniform mericarps, each with a single seed, round on dorsal side, ± excavated on ventral side; one mericarp occasionally aborted.

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 7
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    Flowers in axillary and/or terminal many-to few-flowered cymes, hermaphrodite (and protandrous), rarely unisexual, 4-merous.

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 7
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    Leaves in whorls of 4–10, (sub)sessile, blades linear, lanceolate to (ob)ovate, mostly with a prominent midvein (1-nerved).

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 7
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    Corolla rotate or (sub) campanulate, greenish (-yellow), creamy white to bright yellow, lobes ovate to triangular, acute to acuminate.

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 7
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    Calyx lobes obsolete.

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
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    Stems erect, creeping or climbing, often distinctly 4-angled, glabrous, hairy or with recurved prickles.

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 7
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    Perennial herbs or annuals.

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 7
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    Seeds with membranous testa adhering to the pericarp, dorsally convex, ventrally excavated; albumen horny.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 8
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    Fruit 2-lobed, each lobe with 1 seed, leathery and ± dry or somewhat to quite distinctly fleshy, smooth or tuberculate, glabrous, hairy or with hooked bristles

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 8
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    Disc annular

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
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    Ovary 2-locular; ovules solitary in each locule, affixed to the septum, amphitropous; styles 2, short, sometimes connate below; stigmas capitate

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 8
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    Stamens (3–)4; filaments short, inserted in the very short tube

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 8
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    Annual or perennial herbs, sometimes slightly shrubby at the base, with erect, decumbent or ± climbing 4-angled stems, glabrous to hispid and sometimes with small prickles

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 8
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    Corolla usually white, yellow or reddish, rotate; lobes (3–)4(–5)

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 8
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    Calyx-tube ovoid or globose; limb obsolete, but usually with a ring of sessile colleters

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Flowers hermaphrodite or rarely unisexual, usually very small, arranged in a basically thyrsoid inflorescence, but mostly in exinvolucrate ebracteate axillary or terminal cymes or rarely solitary; pedicel articulated with the calyx

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 8
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    Leaves in whorls of 3–10–many; blades setaceous to ovate, sometimes with prickly margins; stipules foliar and counted with the leaves

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 8
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    Habit

    herbs or vines

  • Provided by: [D].Flora de Panama
  • Distribution

    well distributed throughout the world, especially in the temperate climates.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora de Panama
  • Included Species

      Bibliography

     Information From

    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • A Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • B
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • C Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • E Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • F
    Flora Mesoamericana
    http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/fm/
    Gerrit Davidse, Mario Sousa Sánchez, A. O. Chater, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Instituto de Biología, Missouri Botanical Garden, Natural History Museum (London, England) UNAM, 1994
    • G Missouri Botanical Garden
    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • H Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Rubiaceae
    • I CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • J CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).