Gladiolus L.
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 36. 1753. (1 May 1753)
  • Corn-flag [Latin gladiolus, little sword, alluding to the leaf shape]


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Gladiolus L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000015694. Accessed on: 23 Sep 2021'

General Information

14. Gladiolus L. N.v.: Gladiola.

Por J.E. Henrich y P. Goldblatt.

Perennes estacionales con cormos globosos con túnicas fibrosas, reticuladas a unguiculadas. Hojas pocas a numerosas, aplanadas a teretes, equitantes. Tallo florífero simple o ramificado; inflorescencia una espiga; espatas grandes, herbáceas. Flores zigomorfas, de colores variados, los tépalos unidos en un tubo; tépalos subiguales o el superior mucho más grande y los 3 inferiores formando un labio; filamentos unilaterales y arqueados (dispuestos simétricamente en algunas spp. del S. de África); estilo filiforme con 3 ramas cortas, apicalmente expandidas. Cápsulas ovoides a cilíndricas; semillas numerosas, aladas en la circunferencia. Aprox. 150 spp. Europa, Medio Oriente, África.

Las plantas en los mercados y jardines de Centroamérica son de origen híbrido y han sido conocidas en horticultura desde hace muchos años. Las flores son grandes y de varios colores.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora Mesoamericana
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Herbs, perennial, from corms. Stems simple or branched. Leaves 1–9; blade lanceolate to linear, plane or margins and/or midribs variously raised and thickened (then H- or X-shaped in cross section), or evidently terete, midribs and margins much thickened, grooved; grooves 4, narrow, longitudinal. Inflorescences spicate, partly to fully secund or with flowers weakly distichous; bracts green, sometimes flushed grayish purple, unequal, outer usually exceeding inner, acute or inner forked or notched apically. Flowers somewhat fragrant, zygomorphic [actinomorphic]; tepals basally connate into tube, variously colored, usually with contrasting markings comprising nectar guide on outer tepals, usually unequal, dorsal tepal largest, arched to hooded over stamens, outer 3 tepals narrower; perianth tube obliquely funnel-shaped to cylindric; stamens usually unilateral; anthers usually parallel; style usually arching over stamens, dividing into 3 filiform branches, these distally expanded. Capsules usually slightly inflated, oblong to ellipsoid or globose [rarely nearly cylindric], softly cartilaginous. Seeds usually many, broadly winged; rarely few, wingless, globose or angular; seed coat light to dark brown. x = 15.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Leaves few to several, the lower (2)3 entirely sheathing and mostly below ground (cataphylls); foliage leaves usually synanthous (more or less fully developed at flowering), or hysteranthous (developing after flowering on the same shoot or borne on separate shoots), few to several, basal or cauline, blades well developed or reduced and largely to entirely sheathing, lanceolate to linear and plane or filiform and terete, the margins, midrib and sometimes also other veins thickened and hyaline (margins sometimes winged).

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Stem terete, simple or branched.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Inflorescence a spike with flowers secund or, in a few species, distichous); floral bracts usually green, soft to firm, sometimes dry and brown at anthesis, relatively large, the inner usually smaller than the outer.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Flowers zygomorphic (actinomorphic in a few species from South Africa, Zaire and Madagascar); tepals united in a well developed, sometimes very long perianth tube; subequal, or unequal with the uppermost broader and arching to hooded over the stamens, the lower 3 narrower, shorter or longer than the upper.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Perennial herbs with corms, aerial parts dying back annually; corms with coriaceous to fibrous and reticulate tunics.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Stamens unilateral and arcuate; filaments included or exserted from the perianth tube; anthers unilateral (symmetrical in actinomorphic flowers).

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Style exserted; style branches simple, expanded above and sometimes apically bilobed.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Capsules large and slightly inflated.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Seeds usually many, with a broad membranous wing about the circumference (wingless in a few species).

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Herbes'à corme souvent globuleux, parfois stolonifère. tunique avec des fibres en réseau parallèle; tige généralement simple, parfois ramifiée, subcylindrique; cataphylles 2-3.'Feuilles'distiques, équitantes, généralement basilaires à caulinaires durant l'anthèse, parfois latérales avant ou après l'anthèse sur une tige distincte.'Inflorescence'en épi, rarement 1-flore; spathes absentes; bractées présentes, accompagnées d'une bractéole interne.'Fleurs'sessiles, subactinomorphes à nettement zygomorphes et parfois bilabiées; périgone à tépales soudés en un tube plus ou moins évasé et incurvé, à lobes égaux à nettement inégaux, le supérieur médian souvent arqué et les 3 inférieurs ou les 5 autres formant parfois une lèvre inférieure; étamines généralement disposées unilatéralement, rarement divergentes, insérées vers le sommet du tube du périgone, à filet libre et à anthère subbasifixe à médifixe, rarement mucronée ou apiculée; ovaire ovoïde à subcylindrique; style filiforme; stigmates 3. terminaux, oblongs, entiers ou bilobulés.'Capsules'globuleuses, ovoïdes, ellipsoïdales à subcylindriques.'Graines généralement aplaties et anguleuses à ailées.\n\t\t\t\tGenre d'Europe et d'Afrique méditerranéenne, d'Asie du sud-ouest mais surtout d'Afrique tropicale, subtropicale et australe ainsi que de Madagascar, comprenant près de 200 espèces. Pour la Flore : 28 espèces dont 3 avec chacune 2 variétés.

  • Provided by: [A].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES

    Goldblatt, P. 1996. Gladiolus in Tropical Africa. Portland. Goldblatt, P. and J. C. Manning. 1998. Gladiolus in Southern Africa. Cape Town.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Included Species

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Corn-flag [Latin gladiolus, little sword, alluding to the leaf shape]

     Information From

    Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    https://www.floredafriquecentrale.be
    • A http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
    Flora Mesoamericana
    http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/fm/
    Gerrit Davidse, Mario Sousa Sánchez, A. O. Chater, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Instituto de Biología, Missouri Botanical Garden, Natural History Museum (London, England) UNAM, 1994
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • C Flora of North America Association
    Iridaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • D CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • E Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • F
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • G CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).