Gomphrena L.
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 224. 1753. (1 May 1753)
  • [Latin gromphaena, a type of amaranth]


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Gomphrena L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000015961. Accessed on: 26 Sep 2021'

General Information

Herbs or subshrubs. Leaves opposite, rarely alternate. Flowers perfect, clustered in heads. Bracteoles with distal crest. Tepals 5, equal or not, long hairy or glabrous. Stamens 5; filaments united into a tube or cup at base, lateral appendages present, 3-parted at apex, pseudostaminodes absent; anthers 1-loculed. Ovary 1-loculed, with a pendulous ovule; stigmas 2 or 3, linear, or stigma 2-parted. Utricles globose or oblong, compressed, indehiscent. Seeds shiny, lenticular.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    GOMPHRENA L.

    Hierbas, anuales o perennes, tallos postrados, ascendentes o erectos, tallos y ramas más o menos pubescentes con tricomas simples o dendríticos, más o menos adpresos; plantas hermafroditas. Hojas opuestas, decurrentes sobre el pecíolo, más o menos pubescentes, pubescencia generalmente más densa en el envés, tricomas simples o dendríticos; pecioladas o subsésiles. Inflorescencia un capítulo subgloboso o cortamente cilíndrico, terminal o axilar, pedunculado o con 2–6 hojas herbáceas subyacentes y con apariencia sésil, brácteas ovadas o ampliamente triangulares, glabras o pubescentes con tricomas simples, bractéolas más cortas a más largas que la flor, ovadas, lanceoladas o angostamente liguladas, glabras o pubescentes con tricomas simples, cresta presente o ausente, su margen subentero, dentado o lacerado, flores solitarias; tépalos 5, lanceolados u oblongos, libres hasta la base o a veces connados en la base, escariosos, frecuentemente hialinos en el margen y/o ápice, a veces tornándose endurecidos en la base, lanosos abaxialmente con tricomas simples, largos y ondulados, 1- ó 3-nervios; estambres 5, filamentos casi completamente unidos en un tubo, profundamente emarginados o 2-lobados en el ápice con la antera sésil o subsésil en la hendidura, los lobos tan largos como las anteras o ligeramente más cortos, anteras uniloculares; pseudoestaminodios ausentes; ovario 1-ovulado, estilo obsoleto o alargado, estigma formando 2 ramas cilíndricas o filiformes. Fruto un utrículo membranáceo e irregularmente dehiscente; semilla cocleado-orbicular, sin arilo; flor cayendo junto con las bractéolas en la madurez.

    Género con ca 100 especies en su mayoría distribuidas en las regiones cálido templadas y tropicales de América, algunas especies son endémicas de Australia; 4 especies se encuentran en Nicaragua, 3 de las cuales son nativas y una cultivada.

    E. Holzhammer. Die Amerikanischen Arten der Gattung Gomphrena L. 1. Teil. Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München 2: 85–114. 1955, 2. Teil. 2: 178–257. 1956.

  • Provided by: [H].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Flowers perfect, bracteate and bibracteolate, sessile in spikes or heads. Sepals 5, basally connate or discrete, hypogynous, concave, subequal, colorless or brightly colored. Stamens 5, hypogynous, the filaments connate forming a deep stamen tube, the anthers sessile at the summit of the tube; pseudostaminodia 2-lobate; anthers 2-locellate, introrse, medially attached. Ovary globose to obovoid, 1- locular, 1-ovulate, the ovule campylotropous on an elongate flattened funicle; style 1, filiform, about as long as the 2 filiform stigmata. Fruit an indehiscent utricle; seeds cochleate-orbiculate. Pubescent erect or decumbent annual or perennial herbs. Leaves opposite, sessile or petiolate, entire, usually pubescent, apparently deciduous. Inflorescences of terminal and occasionally axillary globose to cylindric solitary or clustered heads, usually subtended by foliar leaves.

  • Provided by: [I].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 10
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    Herbs, annual or perennial. Stems ascending, decumbent, prostrate, or erect. Leaves opposite, sessile or petiolate; blade ovate to obovate, not fleshy, margins entire, long-pilose abaxially and sometimes adaxially. Inflorescences terminal and/or axillary, sessile, subglobose heads, often subtended by involucres of sessile leaves; bracts and bracteoles thin. Flowers bisexual; tepals 5, connate proximally; stamens 5; filaments connate basally into tube; pseudostaminodes absent; ovule 1; style 1, 1.5-4 mm; stigmas 2(-3), subulate or filiform. Utricles included in tepals, stramineous, ovoid or oblong, somewhat compressed, membranous, usually indehiscent. Seeds 1, lenticular, subglobose, to ovoid, smooth.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 11
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    Morphology

    Herbes'annuelles ou vivaces, rarement sous-arbustes, ± velues.'Feuilles'opposées.'Inflorescences'en capitules sphériques ou ovoïdes, rarement en épis.'Fleurs de couleurs souvent brillantes, 5-mères; périgone à segments souvent poilus à la base; étamines soudées à la base, à filets souvent frangés, dentés ou trifides; anthères 2-loculaires; ovaire 1-ovulé, à style divisé en 2-3 branches stigmatiques.\n\t\t\t\tPlus de 100 espèces, surtout américaines, dont plusieurs sont cultivées comme ornementales et ± naturalisées dans les pays chauds, ce qui est le cas des deux espèces congolaises.

  • Provided by: [C].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    • Tepals 5, erect, free or almost so, more or less lanate dorsally, at least the inner 2 usually more or less indurate at the base in fruit.

    • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 6
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      Flowers hermaphrodite, each solitary in the axil of a bract, bibracteolate; bracteoles laterally compressed, carinate, often more or less winged or cristate along the dorsal surface of the midrib, deciduous with the fruit.

    • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 6
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      Style short or long, stigmas 2, suberect or more or less divergent to very short.

    • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 6
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      Stamens 5, monadelphous, the tube shortly 5-dentate with entire to very deeply bilobed teeth.

    • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 6
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      Inflorescences terminal or axillary, capitate or spicate, solitary or glomerate, often subtended by a pair of sessile leaves, bracteate with the bracts persistent in fruit, the axis frequently thickened.

    • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 6
      • ]. 

      Annual or occasionally perennial herbs with entire, opposite leaves.

    • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 6
      • ]. 

      Ovary with a single pendulous ovule.

    • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 6
      • ]. 

      Fruit a thin-walled, irregularly rupturing utricle.

    • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 6
      • ]. 

      Seed ovoid, compressed.

    • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 6
      • ]. 

      Annual or occasionally perennial herbs with entire opposite leaves

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 7
      • ]. 

      Inflorescences terminal or axillary, capitate or spicate, solitary or glomerate, often subtended by a pair of sessile leaves, bracteate with the bracts persistent in fruit, the axis frequently thickened

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 7
      • ]. 

      Flowers hermaphrodite, each solitary in the axil of a bract, bibracteolate; bracteoles (in African species) laterally compressed, carinate, often ± winged or cristate along the dorsal surface of the midrib, deciduous with the fruit

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 7
      • ]. 

      Tepals 5, erect, free or almost so, ± lanate dorsally, at least the inner 2 usually ± indurate at the base in fruit

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 7
      • ]. 

      Ovary with a single pendulous ovule; style short or long; stigmas 2, suberect or ± divergent, filiform to very short

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 7
      • ]. 

      Stamens 5, monadelphous, the tube shortly 5-dentate with entire to very deeply bilobed teeth; anthers unilocular

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 7
      • ]. 

      Seed ovoid, compressed.

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 7
      • ]. 

      Fruit a thin-walled irregularly rupturing capsule

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 7
      • ]. 

      Distribution

      Four species are known from Central America but only two are reported from Panama.

    • Provided by: [I].Flora de Panama
      • Source: [
      • 10
      • ]. 

      Literature

      SELECTED REFERENCES

      Holzhammer, E. 1955. Die amerikanischen Arten der Gattung Gomphrena Linné. I. Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München 2: 85-114. Holzhammer, E. 1956. Die amerikanischen Arten der Gattung Gomphrena Linné. II. Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München 2: 178-257.

    • Provided by: [F].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
      • Source: [
      • 11
      • ]. 

      Included Species

      Other Local Names

      NameLanguageCountry
      [Latin gromphaena, a type of amaranth]

       Information From

      Amaranthaceae
      World Flora Online Data. 2017.
      • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
      MBG Floras Images
      http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
      Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
      • B Missouri Botanical Garden
      Flore d'Afrique Centrale
      https://www.floredafriquecentrale.be
      • C http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
      Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
      http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
      • D
      Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
      http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
      • E
      Flora of North America @ efloras.org
      http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
      'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
      • F Flora of North America Association
      Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
      http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
      'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
      • G Missouri Botanical Garden
      Flora de Nicaragua
      http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
      WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
      • H Missouri Botanical Garden
      Flora de Panama
      http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
      Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
      • I Missouri Botanical Garden
      World Flora Online consortium
      http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
      World Flora Online Data. 2018.
      • J CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).