Hibiscus L.
  • Sp. Pl. 2: 693. 1753. (1 May 1753)
  • Rose-mallow [Greek hibiscus or ibiscum, alluding to cohabitation with Ibis, stork, in marshes]


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Hibiscus L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000017873. Accessed on: 02 Jun 2020'

General Information

Shrubs, subshrubs, trees, or herbs. Leaf blade palmately lobed or entire, basal veins 3 or more. Flowers axillary, usually solitary, sometimes subterminal and ± congested into a terminal raceme, 5-merous, bisexual. Epicalyx lobes 5 to many, free or connate at base, rarely very short (H. schizopetalus) or absent (H. lobatus). Calyx campanulate, rarely shallowly cup-shaped or tubular, 5-lobed or 5-dentate, persistent. Corolla usually large and showy, variously colored, often with dark center; petals adnate at base to staminal tube. Filament tube well developed, apex truncate or 5-dentate; anthers throughout or only on upper half of tube. Ovary 5-loculed or, as a result of false partitions, 10-loculed; ovules 3 to many per locule; style branches 5; stigmas capitate. Fruit a capsule, cylindrical to globose, valves 5, dehiscence loculicidal and sometimes partially septicidal or indehiscent (H. vitifolius Linnaeus). Seeds reniform, hairy or glandular verrucose.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    HIBISCUS L.

    Sufrútices, arbustos o árboles, glabrescentes, pubescentes o híspidos. Hojas elípticas, lanceoladas, ovadas o cordiformes, a veces lobadas o partidas, dentadas o raramente subenteras. Pedicelos generalmente solitarios; calículo generalmente bien desarrollado, con 8–20 bractéolas, libres o más o menos connadas; cáliz 5-lobado, simétrico, persistente; pétalos de varios colores, con frecuencia grandes y vistosos; estilos 5, apicalmente libres, los estigmas capitados. Cápsula dehiscente, 5-locular; semillas generalmente numerosas, glabrescentes o pubescentes.

    Un género con ca 200 especies distribuido en casi todas partes del mundo; 11 especies se encuentran en Nicaragua, incluyendo 6 nativas, 3 cultivadas y 2 naturalizadas. Varias especies son cultivadas como arbustos ornamentales.

    P. Fryxell. A revision of the American species of Hibiscus section Bombicella (Malvaceae). Techn. Bull. U.S.D.A. 1624: 6–10. 1980.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Herbs, annual or perennial, or shrubs or infrequently small to medium-sized trees, the indumentum of simple or stellate hairs, sometimes aculeate. Leaves petiolate, the blade simple to palmatilobed or palmatiparted, the venation palmate, sometimes with a dorsal gland near the base of the midrib. Flowers axillary, soli- tary or forming racemose, paniculate or fasciculate inflorescences, medium or large and showy, the pedicels often articulated; epicalyx usually of numerous bractlets, rarely 2-5 bractlets, occasionally absent or very minute, the bractlets distinct or more or less united at the base, sometimes adnate to the base of the calyx, generally persistent or even accrescent; calyx 5-merous, cupuliform, campanulate or tubular, dentate or lobed,-the midvein of each lobe sometimes bearing a gland, generally persistent or even accrescent; petals contorted, more or less unguiculate, adnate to the base of the staminal tube, variously colored; staminal tube usually elongate, shorter to longer than the corolla, antheriferous throughout or only on the upper part below the 5-lobulate or truncate apex, the filaments long and spreading or short (anthers subsessile); anthers numerous, reniform or hippocrepiform; ovary (4-)5-locular, with 3 to many ovules in each locule, the ovules anatropous (some- times amphitropous?); style branches 5, these slender and mostly spreading; stig- mas capitate, papillate or fimbrillate. Fruit a loculicidally dehiscent capsule gen- erally surrounded by the persistent or accrescent epicalyx and calyx; seeds subglo- bose to reniform, sometimes angulate, glabrous or variously pubescent.

  • Provided by: [A].Flora de Panama
  • Herbs, annual or perennial, subshrubs, shrubs, or trees, glabrous or hairy. Stems erect, Inflorescences axillary, sometimes adnate to subtending petiole (H. moscheutos), flowers solitary or clustered; involucel present, bractlets usually persistent, rarely deciduous (H. mutabilis), 6–16, rarely minute or absent (H. denudatus), distinct, undivided, 2-fid or appendaged (H. acetosella, H. aculeatus, H. furcellatus, H. radiatus). Flowers usually lasting for a day; calyx persistent, sometimes accrescent, inflated or not, not spathaceous, primary veins usually ± straight, rarely zigzag (H. trionum, sometimes H. dasycalyx), lobes triangular to trullate, sometimes strongly 3-ribbed (H. acetosella, H. aculeatus, H. furcellatus, H. radiatus), sometimes with nectary on midrib; corolla radial or weakly bilaterally symmetric, narrowly funnelform to broadly campanulate or rotate or petals sometimes recurved (H. clypeatus), white, cream, yellow, orange, pink, red, lavender, purple, or blue, usually red, purple, or brown basally; staminal column included or exserted (H. coccineus, H. poeppigii, H. schizopetalus); ovary 5-carpellate; ovules 8–60 per carpel; styles 5-branched from or beyond orifice of staminal column; stigmas capitate to discoid or wedge-shaped (H. striatus). Fruits capsules, 5-valved, ovoid or spheroid, apex usually apiculate, acute, or acuminate, sometimes rounded or depressed or impressed, glabrous or hairy. Seeds to 60 per locule, reniform-ovoid, reniform-globose, or subglobose, sometimes angulate, sometimes laterally compressed or impressed, papillose or not, glabrous or hairy. x = 10, 11, [12,] 14, [15–17,] 18, 19, [20,] 26, [27,] and probably higher.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Subarbustos, arbustos o árboles, glabrescentes, pubescentes o híspidos, las estípulas subuladas, incons- picuas. Hojas elípticas, lanceoladas, ovadas o cordadas, a veces lobuladas o partidas, de otra forma dentadas o (menos comúnmente) subenteras, con o sin nectarios foliares. Infls. axilares, usualmente de 1 fl. solitaria, a veces agrupadas distalmente. Fls. con calículo de 8 –10(– 20) brácteas separadas o basalmente connatas (rara- mente suprimidas), lineares a ampliamente lanceoladas; cáliz lobulado hasta ± 1/2; pétalos amarillos (a veces con la base purpúrea), lavanda, rojos u otros colores; estilos 5 (basalmente connatos), los estigmas capitados. Frs. capsulares, 5-loculares, ovoides u oblongos; semillas varias por lóculo, hirsutas a glabrescentes.

  • Provided by: [G].Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
  • "Bractlets of the epicalyx numerous, commonly about 12, linear; stamen- column with anthers along the sides; style-column prolonged, bearing 5 short branches with capitate stigmas; cor large; ovary 5-locular; ovules several in each locule; fr a subglobose to ovoid or prismatic, loculicidal capsule subtended or enclosed by the persistent, accrescent cal; seeds glabrous or roughened or hairy; annual or perennial herbs or shrubs, mostly with large fls. 200+, mostly warm reg."

  • Provided by: [I].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 15
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Calyx 5-merous, usually with 5 lobes (or rarely 5 or 10 teeth) joined at the base or more rarely almost to the apex, persistent.

  • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Staminal tube truncate at the apex; free parts of filaments very variable in length, sometimes whorled.

  • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Ovary 4–5-locular; loculi 3–? -ovulate; style usually 5-branched.

  • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Fruit a loculicidally dehiscent capsule.– Capsule winged or with very prominent angles (TAB. 89 fig. 2)Series 13 (Pterocarpus).

  • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Annual or perennial herbs (sometimes with annual shoots arising from woody rootstocks or underground stems), shrublets, shrubs or (rarely) small trees.

  • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Epicalyx (occasionally absent) of 5–20 bracts very variable in shape and length, free or adnate to the base of the calyx.

  • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Leaves petiolate, simple, lobed or digitately compound.

  • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Flowers usually solitary, axillary and often forming terminal racemose or corymbose inflorescences by reduction of the upper leaves, medium to large, often yellow with a dark centre or red, pink, purplish or white; peduncle usually articulated.

  • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Habit

    Herbs shrubs

  • Provided by: [A].Flora de Panama
  • Distribution

    A very large genus widely distributed in subtropical and tropical regions of both hemispheres, and with a few species in temperate zones. Many of the species of Hibiscus are extensively cultivated as ornamentals. At present 14 species are reported from Panama.

  • Provided by: [A].Flora de Panama
  • Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES Bates, D. M. 1965. Notes on the cultivated Malvaceae, 1. Hibiscus. Baileya 13: 56–130. Blanchard, O. J. 1976. A Revision of Species Segregated from Hibiscus Sect. Trionum (Medicus) de Candolle Sensu Lato (Malvaceae). Ph.D. dissertation. Cornell University. Fryxell, P. A. 1980. A Revision of the American Species of Hibiscus Section Bombicella (Malvaceae). Washington. [U.S.D.A. Techn. Bull. 1624.] Hochreutiner, B. P. G. 1900. Révision du genre Hibiscus. Annuaire Conserv. Jard. Bot. Genève 4: 23–190. Kearney, T. H. 1955b. A tentative key to the North American species of Hibiscus L. Leafl. W. Bot. 7: 274–284. Menzel, M. Y., P. A. Fryxell, and F. D. Wilson. 1983. Relationships among New World species of Hibiscus section Furcaria (Malvaceae). Brittonia 35: 204–221.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Included Species

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Rose-mallow [Greek hibiscus or ibiscum, alluding to cohabitation with Ibis, stork, in marshes]

      Bibliography

     Information From

    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • A Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • B Flora of North America Association
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • C Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    Malvaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • E CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
    Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Costa%20Rica
    Hammel, B. E.; Grayum, M. H.; Herrera, C.; Zamora, N. Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2003-2014
    • G Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • H
    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • I Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • J CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).