Hura L.
  • Sp. Pl. 2: 1008. 1753. (1 May 1753)
  • Sandbox tree [Native American word for poisonous sap, alluding to caustic latex]


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Hura L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000018439. Accessed on: 05 Jun 2020'

General Information

HURA L.

Por Michael J. Huft

Arboles grandes, tronco cubierto de acúleos duros, puntiagudos y cónicos, látex copioso, lechoso o translúcido; plantas monoicas. Hojas alternas, simples, ampliamente ovadas, 7–18 cm de largo y 6–16 cm de ancho, 1.1–1.4 (–1.7) veces tan largas como anchas, ápice cuspidado-acuminado, base profundamente cordada a redondeada u obtusa, márgenes gruesamente crenados, los dientes frecuentemente con glándulas apicales, cartáceas, pinnatinervias, nervios secundarios 12–20 en cada lado, conspicuos, prominentes en el envés, conectados por numerosos nervios inconspicuos; pecíolos largos, con 2 glándulas redondeadas en el ápice, estipulados. Flores estaminadas en espigas densas, terminales, pedúnculo 2–12 cm de largo, cada flor envuelta por una bráctea membranácea que se abre longitudinalmente en la madurez, cáliz cupular y denticulado, pétalos y disco ausentes, estambres numerosos, filamentos fusionados en una columna, anteras en 2–numerosos verticilos; flores pistiladas solitarias en las axilas de las hojas superiores, pedicelos 1–6 cm de largo, cáliz cupuliforme, 4–7 mm de largo, pétalos y disco ausentes, ovario 5–20-locular, cada lóculo con un óvulo, estilos connados en una columna larga y radiada en el ápice, 2.5–5 cm de largo, disco apical ca 1 cm de diámetro, lobos angostos y extendiéndose más de 0.5–1 (–2) cm. Fruto una cápsula grande, 3–5 cm de largo y 5–8 cm de diámetro, leñosa, algo deprimida, con dehiscencia explosiva; semillas grandes, suborbiculares, 1.5–2 cm de diámetro, lateralmente comprimidas, ecarunculadas.

Un género con 2 especies de los trópicos americanos, ambas en Nicaragua. Estas especies se siembran frecuentemente como barda. El látex es cáustico y ocasiona llagas dolorosas en la piel. Las semillas son muy venenosas. Ambas especies son probablemente más comunes y tienen una amplitud ecológica mayor que lo que indican las pocas colecciones realizadas en Nicaragua. "Javillo".

  • Provided by: [D].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Trees, trunk with hard conical spines; monoecious. Leaves alternate, simple, long-petiolate, with 2 round glands at junction with blade; stipules caducous. Inflorescences unisexual. Staminate flowers in terminal long-pedunculate fleshy conical spikes, each flower sheathed by a membranous bract which ruptures at anthesis, sessile; calyx cupulate, denticulate; disc absent; stamens numerous, the filaments connate, the anthers in 2-several verticels, longitudinally dehiscent; pol- len grains oblate, ternate, 3-colporate. Pistillate flowers solitary in uppermost leaf axils or rarely at base of male spike, long-pedicillate; calyx broad-cupulate, 5- toothed to subentire; disc absent; ovary of 5-20 carpels, each with a single ovule, the styles connate into a long column, dilated into radiating lobes at the apex. Fruit an explosively dehiscing woody capsule; seeds laterally compressed, ecaruncu- late.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora de Panama
  • Trees, branching usually in whorls; trunk and branches spiny; indumentum of simple, multicellular hairs; white latex present. Leaves alternate; stipules large, caducous; petioles 2-glandular at apex; leaf blade subentire or undulate-serrulate, pinnately veined. Plants monoecious. Inflorescences terminal or axillary, unbranched, elongate. Male flowers in terminal, long pedunculate catkin; bracts not glandular, united into membranous sheath around bud, afterward irregularly lobed; calyx membranous, shallowly cup-shaped, truncate or slightly serrulate; petals absent; disk absent; stamens (8-)10-20, several-seriate; filaments and connectives united into a stout column, theca free, extrorse, longitudinally dehiscent; pistillode absent. Female flowers solitary, axillary; pedicel long; calyx leathery, broadly cup-shaped, truncate at apex; petals absent; disk absent; ovary 5-20-celled; ovules 1 per locule; styles fused into prominent, fleshy column; stigmas united into large umbrella-shaped lobed disk. Fruit a large, oblate schizocarp, depressed at apex, breaking up into laterally compressed woody mericarps. Seeds laterally compressed, smooth; caruncle absent; endosperm fleshy; cotyledon rounded and flattened.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Trees, monoecious; trunk with broad-based, conic thorns; hairs unbranched; latex white or colorless. Leaves deciduous, alternate, simple; stipules present, caducous; petiole present, glands present at apex, lateral, conspicuous; blade unlobed, margins serrate or crenate-serrulate, laminar glands absent; venation pinnate. Inflorescences usually unisexual, rarely bisexual (pistillate flowers proximal, staminate distal); staminate terminal, spikelike thyrses, cymules densely crowded in conelike structure; pistillate axillary, solitary flowers; bisexual as in staminate with solitary pistillate flower at base; glands subtending each bract 0. Pedicels present. Staminate flowers: sepals 5, imbricate, connate most of length; petals 0; nectary absent; stamens 10–80, connate entire length forming thick column; pistillode absent. Pistillate flowers: sepals 5, connate entire length; petals 0; nectary absent; pistil 5–20-carpellate; style 1, unbranched, terminating in lobed stigmatic disc. Fruits capsules, woody. Seeds lenticular; caruncle absent. x = 11.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 12
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Leaves alternate, long-petiolate, stipulate, simple, entire, subentire or denticulate, penninerved, with a pair of glands at the apex of the petiole

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Male flowers subsessile; calyx open in bud, cupuliform, truncate, denticulate; petals 0; disc 0; stamens 8–many, filaments continuous with the produced connectives and connate into a stout clavate truncated column; anthers in 2 or more whorls around the upper part of the column, discrete, extrorse, thecae parallel, longitudinally dehiscent; pistillode 0

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Inflorescences subterminal or pseudaxillary, solitary, bisexual, the ♂ portion spicate, strobiliform at first, pedunculate, with a large solitary, stoutly pedicellate ♀ flower at the base; ♂ bracts 1-flowered, closed at first and pustuliform, later becoming ruptured as the flowers develop

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Seeds laterally strongly compressed, ecarunculate; testa crustaceous, smooth; albumen fleshy; cotyledons suborbicular, flat.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Fruit large, 5–20-lobed, explosively dehiscing into 5–20 bivalved segmentiform cocci; exocarp fibrous; endocarp thick, ligneous; columella persistent

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Female flower: calyx cupular, truncate, entire, coriaceous, only loosely enveloping the ovary; petals 0; disc 0; ovary 5–20-locular, with 1 ovule per locule; styles 5–20, connate into a tall fleshy column, the arms free at the apex, radiately divergent, undivided

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Large monoecious trees with a simple (localized) indumentum

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Habit

    Trees

  • Provided by: [B].Flora de Panama
  • Distribution

    Two neotropical species, widely planted as living fence posts. Only one has been collected in Panama.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora de Panama
  • Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Sandbox tree [Native American word for poisonous sap, alluding to caustic latex]

     Information From

    Euphorbiaceae
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • C
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • E Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • F Flora of North America Association
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • G CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).