Hybanthus Jacq.
  • Enum. Syst. Pl. 2, 17. 1760. (Sept-Nov 1760)
  • [Greek hybos, hump, and anthos, flower, alluding to recurved pedicels]


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Hybanthus Jacq. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000018492. Accessed on: 26 Nov 2020'

General Information

Small shrubs [or herbs]. Leaves alternate, ± sessile; stipules in pairs, small; leaf blade narrowly elliptic to almost needle-shaped, margin entire to incised. Flowers axillary, bisexual, zygomorphic, solitary, with a pair of bracteoles at joint of peduncle and pedicel. Sepals persistent, ± triangular, nearly equal, margin entire, without appendages at base. Petals unequal, posterior ones straight and small, anterior one extended into a lip, with a short spur at base. Stamens connivent around gynoecium; filaments free, short; anthers 2-celled, with a distinct membranous connective appendage, lower two with a patent gland at base. Ovary: ovules numerous, on 3 parietal placentas; style simple, geniculate at base, conspicuously clavate, with an anterior opening stigmatic cavity. Fruit a 3-valved capsule, subglobose, valves leathery. Seeds numerous, ellipsoid, with longitudinal ribs.

  • Provided by: [H].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    HYBANTHUS Jacq.

    Hierbas, arbustos o a veces árboles pequeños. Hojas alternas o raramente opuestas, generalmente crenadas o serradas, a veces enteras; pecioladas o sésiles, estípulas caducas o persistentes. Flores mayormente pequeñas e inconspicuas en nuestras especies, solitarias o fasciculadas, axilares, zigomorfas, pedicelos articulados; sépalos libres, subiguales, sin aurículas basales persistentes; pétalos desiguales, pétalo inferior ligera o pronunciadamente más grande que los otros, unguiculado, la uña gibosa o sacciforme en la base; anteras subsésiles o en filamentos distintos, libres o connados, el conectivo produciendo un apéndice membranáceo; estilo recurvado-claviforme en el ápice, estigma terminal. Cápsula elásticamente 3-valvada; semillas ovoides a globosas.

    Género con 150 especies de los trópicos del Nuevo y Viejo Mundo, pero más abundante en Centro y Sudamérica; 7 especies se encuentran en Nicaragua y 1 más se espera encontrar; 7 especies adicionales se conocen en Centroamérica.

    H.E. Ballard, M.A. Wetter y N. Zamora. Two new species of Hybanthus (Violaceae) from Central America and a regional key for the genus. Novon 7: 221–226. 1997.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
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    Herbs, suffrutices, shrubs, or infrequently small trees. Leaves alternate, some- times opposite, petiollate or sessile, the stipules usually small and persistent, rarely caducous, the blade entire-margined or ? serrate or crenate. Flowers usually axillary and solitary or few-fasciculate, sometimes in axillary or terminal racemes, rarely in cymose inflorescences, zygomorphic; pedicels articulate; sepals free, sub- equal, without basal auricles, persistent; petals unequal, persistent or not; anterior petal smaller or mostly much larger than the others, unguiculate, the claw gibbous- saccate or shortly calcarate at the base; stamens with the anthers subsessile or on distinct filaments, these free or connate, the 2 anterior ones each bearing a nectari- ferous appendage dorsally, the appendages free or coherent; anthers free or coherent, with membranous connective appendages apically; ovary with 3 placentae, each placenta (2-) 3-oo-ovulate; style usually clavate, the apex slightly curved to un- cinate, the stigma terminal. Capsules loculicidally and elastically 3-valvate, the valves carinate; seeds globose or ovoid, the testa smooth or alveolate, the endo- sperm copious, the cotyledons flat.

  • Provided by: [A].Flora de Panama
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    Herbs or subshrubs, annual or perennial, [subshrubs, shrubs], caulescent, homophyllous, glabrous or hairy. Stems persistent, 1–20, usually erect, sometimes suberect or prostrate, leafy, simple or branched, from thick, fleshy or subligneous, branched or unbranched rhizome or taproot. Leaves cauline, simple, proximal usually opposite, distal usually alternate, petiolate or sessile; stipules not adnate to petiole, linear-subulate to leaflike, usually shorter than leaves; blade not overlapping basally, linear, lanceolate to oblanceolate, ovate to obovate, or elliptic, surfaces not mottled. Inflorescences axillary in leaf axils, 1–3(4)-flowered or in poorly defined racemes; peduncle jointed; bracteoles present or absent. Flowers: sepals subequal, not auriculate; upper 2 and lateral 2 petals not showy, 0.5–5 mm, lowest petal showy, larger than others, narrowed at middle, angular-deltate, elliptic, oblong, orbiculate, or ovate, upper and lateral petals usually glabrous, lower sometimes bearded adaxially; spur gibbous; stamens connate, lowest 2 filaments not spurred with nectary; cleistogamous flowers present or absent. Capsules ovoid, globose, obtusely trigonous, oblong, or ellipsoid, glabrous. Seeds (3–)6–9, globose to slightly flattened, glabrous [hairy], with whitish elaiosome. x = 4.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    "Sep subequal, without auricles; pet small, subequal (in ours), emarginate, recurved at the tip, the lower one wider than the others, gibbous or spurred at base, and more strongly notched at the tip; stamens (in ours) connate into a sheath surrounding the pistil and bearing a bilobed gland at the base; style hooked at the tip; fr a 3-valved capsule; leafy- stemmed perennial herbs (ours) or shrubs with alternate (seldom opposite or even whorled) lvs and inconspicuous, greenish-white fls pedicellate in the axils. (Cubelium) 150, mostly warm reg."

  • Provided by: [E].New York Botanical Garden
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    Morphology

    Seeds pitted or striate, usually with a small aril.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Fruit a loculicidal capsule with 3 contractile valves

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
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    Stamens unequal, free or somewhat coherent, the lower pair each with a short nectar-secreting appendage which extends into the spur; anthers with a thin dorsal connective-appendage

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
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    Petals unequal, the lowermost one (anterior) usually much larger than the others and clawed, with a short basal spur

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Sepals subequal, without a basal appendage

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
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    Flowers zygomorphic, solitary in the leaf-axils, rarely terminal or in clusters; pedicels articulate in the middle or the upper half, with an opposite or subopposite pair of bracteoles

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
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    Annual or perennial herbs, subshrubs or occasionally shrubs with simple or much-branched stems

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
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    Leaves spirally arranged, occasionally opposite or fasciculate, petiolate or sessile, the lamina simple, entire or toothed; stipules small and persistent, rarely foliaceous

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
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    Fruit a loculicidal capsule with 3 elastic valves, keeled and thickened along the suture.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 6
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    Ovary with 3 placentae each bearing (2) 3–? ovules; style bent downwards and ± thickened towards the apex, entire; stigma terminal.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 6
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    Stamens with filaments of varying length, free or ± coherent, the two anterior ones (and rarely also the lateral ones) with free or coherent appendages which extend into the spur and may secrete nectar ("spur-appendages"); anthers free or coherent, with a thin dorsal prolongation of the connective ("connective-appendage").

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 6
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    Seeds spheroidal-ovoid, smooth or ribbed or pitted, with abundant endosperm and a small aril.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Inflorescence of single flowers in the leaf axils or, more rarely, terminal racemes or axillary racemes or clusters; pedicels articulated.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 6
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    Flowers zygomorphic.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 6
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    Sepals almost equal, without a basal appendage.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Petals unequal, the anterior one smaller, or usually much larger, than the others, unguiculate, with a short basal spur.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Leaves alternate or opposite, petiolate or sessile, entire or ± serrate; stipules usually small and persistent, rarely foliaceous or deciduous.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 6
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    Herbs, shrublets or shrubs.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 6
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    Plantes herbacées, suffrutescentes, plus rarement arbustives.'Feuilles'alternes, rarement opposées, sessiles ou pétiolées, entières ou ± serrées-dentées; stipules petites, rarement foliacées, persistantes ou caduques.'Fleurs'solitaires, axillaires, plus rarement racèmes terminaux ou axillaires, solitaires ou fascicules.'Fleurs'à pédicelle articulé portant dans la partie supérieure 2 bractéoles, zygomorphes; sépales subégaux, non appendiculés à la base; pétales inégaux, l'antérieur plus développé que les autres, gibbeux ou un peu sacelliforme à la base, longuement onguiculé et terminé par une lame étalée largement ovale, suborbiculaire ou quadrangulaire; étamines à anthères subsessiles ou à filets distincts, libres ou ± unis à la base, les 2 antérieurs garnis d'un éperon réfléchi; anthères à connectif prolongé dorsalement en un appendice membraneux, foliacé; ovaire 1-loculaire à 3 placentas pariétaux, chacun portant (2) 3-∞ ovules; style à sommet incurvé-claviforme; stigmate terminal.'Capsules'loculicides, à 3 valves élastiques, carénées et épaissies le long de la suture.'Graines en nombre variable ovoïdes, lisses, non ailées, ponctuées ou longitudinalement striées.\n\t\t\t\tGenre groupant une centaine d'espèces dans les régions tropicales et subtropicales, plus abondantes en Amérique Centrale et en Amérique du Sud, exceptionnellement quelques espèces dans les régions tempérées; pour la Flore, 1 espèce.

  • Provided by: [G].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    • Source: [
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    Habit

    Herbs suffrutices

  • Provided by: [A].Flora de Panama
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    shrubs trees

  • Provided by: [A].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 9
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    Distribution

    A genus of about 100 species distributed throughout the tropics, but most abundant in tropical America; three species at present reported from Panama.

  • Provided by: [A].Flora de Panama
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    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES Morton, C. V. 1944. Studies of tropical American plants. The genus Hybanthus in continental North America. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 29: 74–82. Morton, C. V. 1971. Some types and range extensions in Hybanthus (Violaceae). Phytologia 21: 56–62.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 10
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    Included Species

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    [Greek hybos, hump, and anthos, flower, alluding to recurved pedicels]

      Bibliography

     Information From

    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • A Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • B Flora of North America Association
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • C
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • E Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • F
    Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    https://www.floredafriquecentrale.be
    • G http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • H Missouri Botanical Garden
    Violaceae
    • I CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • J CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).