Hypericum L.
  • Sp. Pl. 2: 783. 1753. (1 May 1753)
  • St. John’s wort, St. Andrew’s cross, millepertuis [Greek hyper, above, and eikon, image, alluding to ancient Greek custom of decorating religious figures with Hypericum species to ward off evil spirits]


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Hypericum L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000018759. Accessed on: 21 Sep 2021'

General Information

HYPERICUM L.

Por Norman K. B. Robson

Arbustos, subarbustos o hierbas perennes a anuales, glabros, sin glándulas obscuras, con tallos 4-angulados; plantas hermafroditas. Hojas sésiles, con puntos pelúcido-glandulares. Flores homostilas; sépalos 5; pétalos 5, amarillos, con glándulas pelúcidas; estambres 10–40, libres, irregularmente agrupados; fascículos estaminodiales ausentes; ovario 1-locular con 3 placentas parietales, estilos 3, libres. Fruto una cápsula septicida, 3-valvada; semillas numerosas, cilíndricas a elipsoides.

Género con ca 400 especies, cosmopolita excepto en las tierras bajas tropicales, desiertos y regiones árticas; 2 especies se encuentran en Nicaragua.

C. Rodríguez Jiménez. Recherches sur Hypericum L. section Brathys (Mutis ex L.f.) Choisy sous-section Spachium Keller (Guttiferae). Mem. Soc. Ci. Nat. La Salle 33: 5–151. 1973; N.K.B. Robson. Studies in the genus Hypericum L. (Guttiferae) 8. Sections 29. Brathys (part 2) and 30. Trigynobrathys. Bull. Brit. Mus. , Bot. 20: 1–151. 1990.

  • Provided by: [A].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Trees, shrubs or perennial to annual herbs, glabrous or with simple hairs, with glandular canals or locules containing resins (amber), essential oils (pellucid) and often hypericin and pseudohypericin (black or red). Leaves opposite, entire, rarely gland fringed, sessile or shortly petiolate, the venation subparallel or variously reticulate, pellucid or dark glands present on lamina or margins. Inflorescences 1-many-flowered, usually dichasial, terminal and some- times also axillary, with branches regularly bracteate and bracteolate, sometimes foliate; the bracts often foliaceous; pedicels usually present. Flowers homostylous or rarely heterostylous, the perianth usually radiate to cupulate; sepals 5, quin- cuncial, or occasionally 4 and decussate, glandular like the leaves; petals 5(4), contorted in bud, yellow to orange or rarely white, often tinged or veined with red in areas exposed in bud, usually asymmetric, variously glandular, deciduous or persistent, glabrous; stamen fascicles free, variously united or sometimes ap- parently absent, deciduous or persistent, glabrous, each with many to few

  • Provided by: [C].Flora de Panama
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    • 4
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Herbs, annual or perennial, subshrubs, or shrubs [trees], sometimes rhizomatous, glabrous or hairy, with glandular canals, lacunae, or dots containing resins or waxes (amber), essential oils (pale, translucent), and/or, sometimes, hypericin and pseudohypericin (black or red) in various parts. Stems: internodes terete (not lined) or 2-, 4-, or 6-lined at first (lines usually raised), then sometimes becoming angled, terete, or winged; Inflorescences terminal, cymose, 2+-flowered, or flowers solitary, branching stellate [cupulate]; sepals persistent or deciduous, (3–)4–5, distinct or ± connate, margins sometimes glandular-ciliate; petals persistent or deciduous, (3–)4–5[–6], contorted, yellow to orange, sometimes red-tinged; stamens persistent or deciduous, (5–)10–300(–650), in continuous or interrupted ring or in (3–)4–5 fascicles, fascicles distinct or connate, each with 1–60+ stamens; filaments distinct or basally connate; anthers yellow to orange, oblong to ellipsoid, almost isodiametric, sometimes with amber or black gland on connective; staminode fascicles 0 [3]; ovary 2–5-merous; placentation axile to parietal; ovules 2+ on each placenta; styles distinct or ± connate basally, spreading to ± appressed. Capsules 2–5-valved, sometimes with glandular vittae or vesicles. Seeds narrowly cylindric to ellipsoid, sometimes carinate; testa foveolate or reticulate to scalariform [papillose]. x = 12, 9–7, 6 (dihaploid).

  • Provided by: [B].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    stamens, or rarely reduced to 1 stamen, the filament slender, usually free almost to the base, the anther oblong or elliptic with an amber or dark gland on the connective; staminodial fascicles absent or rarely 3, glabrous; ovary glabrous, 3-5-locular with axile placentas or completely unilocular with (2-)3-5 parietal placentas, each placenta with 2-many ovules, the styles (2-)3-5, free or partly to completely united, glabrous, the stigma small or broadly capitate. Fruit a septicidal capsule, occasionally fleshy and tardily dehiscent, the (2-)3-5 valves often with resin-containing vittae or vesicles, 1-many-seeded; seeds small, the testa variously sculptured, often carinate or winged, the embryo slender, straight, with distinct straight cotyledons.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Hierbas o arbustos. Hojas sésiles o pecioladas; lámina glabra, los nervios secundarios muy inconspicuos. Infls. cimosas o de 1 fl. solitaria, glabras. Fls. con los sépalos glabros; pétalos amarillos, glabros; estambres irre- gularmente agrupados, 10 – 40, usualmente sin estaminodios; ovario unilocular; estilos 3. Frs. capsulares, sep- ticidas; semillas cilíndricas, ligeramente foveoladas.

  • Provided by: [G].Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • 5
    • ]. 

    "Perianth 4–5-merous; sep persistent, often unequal, sometimes only 2 fully developed; pet convolute, typically yellow, occasionally more orange or coppery; stamens 5 to more often ± numerous, distinct or ± connate at base, often into 3 or 5 definite bundles; no hypogynous glands; ovary 2–5-carpellate, unilocular or partly or wholly plurilocular, often with intruded partial partitions; styles persistent, often connate below; fr capsular; seeds short-cylindric, areolate; herbs or shrubs with cymose (rarely solitary) fls. (Ascyrum, Sarothra) 400, mainly N. Temp."

  • Provided by: [H].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Arbres , arbustes, suffrutex ou herbes.'Feuilles'opposées, rarement verticillées, à ponctuations ou canaux linéaires translucides.'Fleurs'☿ solitaires ou en cymes bipares ou corymbiformes; sépales 5, à préfloraison imbriquée; pétales 5, à préfloraison contortée; étamines généralement nombreuses, ordinairement groupées en phalanges libres ou soudées entre elles à la base; filets libres ou courtement soudés entre eux à la base; ovaire (1)3-5(pluri)-loculaire; ovules 1-∞ par loge; placentation axile, rarement pariétale; styles 3-5, libres ou partiellement concrescents.'Fruits': capsules septicides, rarement baies.'Graines ordinairement nombreuses, à testa réticulé, fovéolé ou papilleux.\n\t\t\t\tGenre cosmopolite d'environ 300 espèces, représenté seulement, en zone tropicale, dans les régions d'altitude. Pour la Flore : 11 espèces.

  • Provided by: [D].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Habit

    Trees, shrubs or perennial to annual herbs

  • Provided by: [C].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES Adams, W. P. 1957. A revision of the genus Ascyrum (Hypericaceae). Rhodora 59: 73–95. Adams, W. P. 1962b. Studies in the Guttiferae. II. Taxonomic and distributional observations in North American taxa. Rhodora 64: 231–242. Adams, W. P. and N. K. B. Robson. 1961. A re-evaluation of the generic status of Ascyrum and Crookea (Guttiferae). Rhodora 63: 10–16. Crockett, S. L. 2003. Phytochemical and Biosystematic Investigations of New and Old World Hypericum Species (Clusiaceae). Ph.D. dissertation. University of Mississippi. Robson, N. K. B. 1981. Studies in the genus Hypericum L. (Guttiferae) 2. Characters of the genus. Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Bot. 8: 55–226. Robson, N. K. B. 1985. Studies in the genus Hypericum L. (Guttiferae) 8. Sections 29. Brathys (part 2) and 30. Trigynobrathys. Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Bot. 20: 1–151. Robson, N. K. B. 1994. Studies in the genus Hypericum L. (Guttiferae) 6. Sections 20. Myriandra to 28. Elodes. Bull. Nat. Hist. Mus. London, Bot. 26: 75–217. Robson, N. K. B. 2001. Studies in the genus Hypericum L. (Guttiferae) 4(1). Sections 7. Roscyna to 9. Hypericum sensu lato (part 1). Bull. Nat. Hist. Mus. London, Bot. 31: 37–88. Robson, N. K. B. 2002. Studies in the genus Hypericum L. (Guttiferae) 4(2). Section 9. Hypericum sensu lato (part 2): subsection 1. Hypericum series 1. Hypericum. Bull. Nat. Hist. Mus. London, Bot. 32: 61–123. Robson, N. K. B. 2006. Studies in the genus Hypericum (Guttiferae) 4(3). Section 9. Hypericum sensu lato (part 3): subsection 1. Hypericum series 2. Senanensia, subsection 2. Erecta and section 9b. Graveolentia. Syst. Biodivers. 4: 19–98. Robson, N. K. B. 2012. Studies in the genus Hypericum L. (Hypericaceae) 9. Addenda, corrigenda, keys, lists and general discussion. Phytotaxa 72: 1–111.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Included Species

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    St. John’s wort, St. Andrew’s cross, millepertuis [Greek hyper, above, and eikon, image, alluding to ancient Greek custom of decorating religious figures with Hypericum species to ward off evil spirits]

      Bibliography

     Information From

    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • A Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • B Flora of North America Association
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • C Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    https://www.floredafriquecentrale.be
    • D http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
    Hypericaceae
    • E CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
    Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Costa%20Rica
    Hammel, B. E.; Grayum, M. H.; Herrera, C.; Zamora, N. Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2003-2014
    • G Missouri Botanical Garden
    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • H Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • I CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).