Ilex L.
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 125. 1753. (1 May 1753)


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2019): Ilex L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000018994. Accessed on: 06 Dec 2019'

General Information

Morphological characters and geographic distribution are the same as those of the family.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    ILEX L.

    A veces epífitos, generalmente siempreverdes. Hojas lanceoladas a ampliamente ovadas, márgenes enteros a sinuados, a veces con dientes evidentes, glabras a pubescentes, membranosas a gruesamente coriáceas, con o sin puntos glandulares en el envés; pecíolos frecuentemente más obscuros que las láminas y engrosados cuando secos. Flores 4–6-meras, (hasta 20-meras en varias especies del sureste de Asia y el Pacífico Sur); sépalos cupuliformes cuando en flor, a veces patentes cuando en fruto, ovados a muy ampliamente ovados, generalmente más cortos que los pétalos, generalmente obtusos, enteros a ciliados; corola imbricada cuando en yema, cruciforme a rotácea, generalmente blanca pero frecuentemente blanco-verdosa o blanco-amarillenta; flores estaminadas con filamentos engrosados en la base, anteras basifijas, tecas paralelas, gineceo reducido a un pistilodio pequeño, capitado o cónico; flores pistiladas con estaminodios, ovario ovoide a elipsoide, estilo corto o ausente, estigma lobado o capitado, óvulo 1 por lóculo. Drupas generalmente globosas, cáliz y estigma persistentes, pericarpo generalmente rojo al madurar, pero variando desde amarillo, anaranjado, morado a negro, exocarpo generalmente menos de 1 mm de grueso, carnoso a coriáceo, mesocarpo mayormente grueso y carnoso, a veces ausente, endocarpo leñoso, rodeando a la semilla y unido a ésta formando un pireno; pirenos mayormente elíptico-ovados, semielípticos en sección lateral, triangulares en sección transversal, lisos a variadamente estriados.

    Género grande con distribución similar a la de la familia y conteniendo casi todas las especies; 6 especies se conocen en Nicaragua y una adicional se espera encontrar.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Trees or shrubs, the branchlets all elongated or elongated and abbreviated. Leaves with the blades linear to suborbicular, usually persistent (Panama), stipu- late, from very short- to moderately long-petiolate, the margins entire or variously toothed, cut or spinose, glabrous or puberulent, rarely pilose, especially beneath, membranaceous to thickly coriaceous, usually shining and dark green above, paler and duller beneath. Flowers on current growth or on old wood, solitary or fascicu- late, usually axillary to a leaf or forking of branchlets, or laterally single, or singly clustered laterally or axillary at the base of current growth, the clusters one- to many-flowered, forming cyme-like, dichasiate, racemose, corymbose, umbellate, paniculate, or irregularly complex, usually determinate inflorescences, mostly 4- merous, varying (New World) from 4- to 8-(9-)merous (aborted 9 organs excepted), isomerous; calyx usually imbricate, patelliform to cupuliform, in fruit frequently becoming explanate, the lobes shorter, equal to or longer than the tube, usually ovate or deltoid, occasionally irregular, entire or laciniate, ciliolate or eciliolate, acute or obtuse; corolla imbricate, rotate, the petals united at the base (rarely, but not in ours, almost free), usually white, rarely greenish-white, yel- lowish-white, or pinkish-white; filaments usually shorter than but varying to little longer than the petals, thickened at the base; fertile stamens with anthers longer to shorter than the filaments; staminodia with aborted anthers mostly shorter than the filaments, occasionally subobsolete; fertile ovary mostly conic, ovoid or ellipsoid, the style usually lacking, the stigmatic lobes sessile, equal in number to the locules of the ovary, usually united into a punctate to hemispherical stigma, when style present, the stigma subsessile; locules 1-ovulate, the ovules with 1 integument; pistillodium very variable, usually conic to pulvinate, the style usually lacking, the stigmatic lobes free, partly conflent or united, much smaller than the fertile ovary. Fruit ellipsoid to globose, mostly red, sometimes black or dark violet, rarely yellow or white, the calyx and stigma persistent; exocarp usually thin; mesocarp mostly thick, sometimes almost lacking; endocarp mostly hard, coriaecous to stony, surrounding and united with a seed to form a pyrene; pyrenes mostly trigonous, sometimes lanceolate in cross-section, equal to the number of locules of the ovary, in ours 4-8(-10), dorsally smooth or variously striate, sulcate, ridged or canaliculate, laterally smooth to marked (as dorsally), ventrally reduced to a stria.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • 7
    • ]. 

    "Polygamo-dioecious; fls 4–8-merous, unisexual or sometimes perfect, the pistillate usually bearing stamens with small anthers, the staminate often with a vestigial pistil; cal small but evident, persistent under the fr; pet obovate, shortly connate at base; stamens alternate with the pet, barely adnate to the cor-tube; ovary 4–8-locular; style very short and stout, or none; fr black or red (yellow); trees or shrubs with simple, alternate lvs and axillary clusters of small, white or greenish fls. 300–400, cosmop."

  • Provided by: [F].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Stamens as many as petals

  • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Petals usually connate at base

  • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Ovary 4–6-celled.

  • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Inflorescence axillary

  • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Habit

    Trees shrubs

  • Provided by: [D].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Distribution

    The center of distribution is in the Western Hemisphere in the area between the Rio La Plata and eastern Andes from northern Argentina to southeastern Colombia.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Included Species

     Information From

    Aquifoliaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    • C Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • E Missouri Botanical Garden
    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • F Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • G Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • H The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • I CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).