Iris L.
  • Sp. Pl. : 38 (1753)
  • [Greek iris, rainbow]

Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2023): Iris L. Published on the Internet; Accessed on: 28 Jan 2023'

General Information

12. Iris L. N.v.: Lirios.

Por J.E. Henrich y P. Goldblatt.

Perennes estacionales con rizomas horizontales reptantes, a veces con bulbos. Hojas varias, equitantes, lanceoladas a lineares (raramente teretes o cuadrangulares en sección). Tallos floríferos simples o ramificados con ripidios terminales encerrados en espatas verdes, de textura suave. Flores actinomorfas, de varios colores pero frecuentemente matizadas de azul a púrpura, los tépalos unidos en un tubo corto; tepalos desiguales, los 3 exteriores más largos, firmemente unguiculados, las uñas erectas y con un néctario basal, los limbos patentes a péndulos, los 3 interiores generalmente erectos, a veces reflexos; filamentos libres, las anteras y filamentos adpresos a las ramas del estilo; estilo filiforme, corto, dividido en 3 ramas anchas petaloides, cada una con un par de ápendices (crestas) terminales, el estigma abaxial, un lobo transverso en la base de las crestas. Capsulas ovoides a cilíndricas; semillas globosas a anguladas, frecuentemente ariladas. Aprox. 200 spp. Norteamérica, Europa, N. África y Asia, cultivados en todo el mundo.

Las plantas de los mercados y jardines de Mesoamérica son Iris germanica L. o híbridos de ésta y especies relacionadas. Las flores de nuevos cultivares son notoriamente grandes y de varios colores.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora Mesoamericana
    • Source: [
    • 1
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    • ]. 

    Herbs perennial, usually with short or long rhizomes (or bulbs), sometimes with swollen storage roots. Leaves mostly basal, 2-ranked, often oriented edgewise to aerial stem, sword-shaped to linear. Aerial stem developed, much shorter than or longer than leaves. Inflorescence of rhipidia arranged in racemes, panicles, or solitary. Flowers white, yellow, blue, violet, or purple, relatively large, often fragrant. Perianth tube usually trumpet-shaped, sometimes very narrowly so, very short to long; outer 3 perianth segments (falls) ornamented or not, with a crested, bearded, or beardless claw (haft), and an expanded, usually reflexed limb (blade), the beard or crest (when present) extending along midvein of proximal part of limb adaxially; inner 3 perianth segments (standards) smaller, never ornamented, erect or spreading. Stamens opposed to style branches and appressed to them; filaments free, flattened. Style with 3 colored, expanded, petaloid branches, arching over stamens, apex of branches extended as 2 lobes (crests) projecting beyond flaplike, abaxial stigma. Capsule globose, ellipsoid, or cylindric, apex beaked or not. Seeds pyriform, flattened and D-shaped, or irregularly angled, sometimes arillate.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora of China @
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Herbs, perennial, from rhizomes [bulbs or fascicles of fleshy roots]; rhizomes homogeneous with branches like primary in size and texture, or heterogeneous, branches cordlike with scalelike leaves, enlarging at apex to produce vegetative leaves, additional cordlike branches, and flowering stems. Flowering stems simple or branched, erect (declining or semierect and obviously zigzag in I. brevicaulis and some of its hybrids), solid or hollow, terete or slightly flattened. Leaves: basal 3–10, in fan; blade monofacial (except at base), smooth or ridged, sometimes centrally thickened, veins obscure to prominent; cauline 0–4 on branched stems, usually similar to basal, subtending each branch, decreasing in length distally, sometimes bracteiform and sheathing stem. Inflorescences rhipidiate, units 1 or more-flowered, spathaceous; spathes 2, herbaceous with scarious tips, or completely scarious, with or without distinct keel, often persisting and enclosing capsule(s) at maturity. Flowers lasting 1–4 days, upward-facing, usually somewhat fragrant (odor extremely unpleasant in I. foetidissima), pedicellate or sessile; perianth epigynous, white, yellow, tan, brown, copper-red, maroon, blue, blue-violet, or purple, often with markings of contrasting colors, differentiated into sepals and petals, actinomorphic, 4–18 cm diam.; floral tube distal to ovary, terete or occasionally ridged, solid proximally, hollow distally; sepals 3, spreading or reflexed, expanding either gradually or abruptly from claw into broader limb, with signal of prominent ridge, crest, distinct lines or dots, pubescence, or band of multicellular hairs (beard) along midline of claw and for short distance along midrib of limb; petals 3, erect, spreading or rarely reflexed, sometimes very reduced and mostly hidden by sepal bases; stamens opposite sepals, free but appressed to style branches; style dividing distally into petaloid branches, these arching outward and over stamens and claws of sepals, dividing at apex into 2 rounded or triangular lobes (style crests); stigma a lip of tissue on adaxial surface of style arm at base of crest; ovary terete or roundly 3- or 6-angled or -grooved. Fruits capsular, wall papery or becoming dry and hardened, sometimes indehiscent (in I. giganticaerulea). Seeds 4–20, in 1–2 rows per locule, often flattened in contact with others, rounded on outer surface; seed coat tan to dark brown (red in I. foetidissima), thin, membranous, and smooth, or conspicuously roughened to extensively corky (usually in wetland species), with or without obvious aril. x = uncertain.

  • Provided by: [A].Flora of North America @
    • Source: [
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    Sep spreading or reflexed; pet erect or arching, in our spp. narrower and shorter than the petaloid sep; tep all united below into a perianth-tube; stamens inserted at the base of the sep; ovary 3- or 6-angled or -lobed; style divided distally into 3 petaloid branches arching over the stamens, each 2-lobed at the tip; stigma a thin plate or lip at the outer base of the 2 lobes; fr coriaceous or chartaceous, loculicidal or indehiscent; seeds in 1 or 2 rows per locule; perennial herbs with ensiform or linear lvs, our spp. with horizontal rhizomes and usually erect fl-stalks bearing 1–many fls. 200, N. Temp. Much hybridized in cult.

  • Provided by: [G].Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern US and Canada
    • Source: [
    • 5
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    Anderson, E. 1936. The species problem in Iris. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 23: 457–509. British Iris Society. 1997. A Guide to Species Irises: Their Identification and Cultivation. Cambridge and New York. Dykes, W. R. 1913. The Genus Iris. Cambridge. Foster, M. 1889. On irises. J. Roy. Hort. Soc. 11: 131–149. Foster, R. C. 1937. A cytotaxonomic survey of the North American species of Iris. Contr. Gray Herb. 119: 3–79. Henderson, N. C. 1991. Iris ×pacifica. Bull. Amer. Iris Soc. 280: 85–87. Henderson, N. C. 1994. The Louisiana irises. Bull. Amer. Iris Soc. 293: 73–82. Köhlein, F. 1987. Iris, transl. M. C. Peters. Portland. Mathew, B. 1990. The Iris, rev. ed. Portland. Wister, J. C. 1927. The Iris: A Treatise on the History, Development and Culture of the Iris for the Amateur Gardener. New York and London.

  • Provided by: [A].Flora of North America @
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Included Species

    Other Local Names

    [Greek iris, rainbow]

     Information From

    Flora of North America @
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • A Flora of North America Association
    Flora of China @
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Mesoamericana
    Gerrit Davidse, Mario Sousa Sánchez, A. O. Chater, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Instituto de Biología, Missouri Botanical Garden, Natural History Museum (London, England) UNAM, 1994
    • C Missouri Botanical Garden
    World Flora Online Data. 2021.
    • D CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    MBG Floras Images
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • E Missouri Botanical Garden
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
    Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern US and Canada
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • G Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    World Flora Online Consortium
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • H CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).