Lilium L.
  • Sp. Pl. : 302 (1753)
  • Lily [Greek lirion, white lily]

Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2022): Lilium L. Published on the Internet; Accessed on: 26 Sep 2022'

General Information

Herbs perennial, bulbiferous. Bulb of many imbricate, fleshy scales, without tunic. Stem erect, leafy. Leaves alternate, rarely whorled, sessile or subsessile, usually linear to linear-lanceolate. Bulblets sometimes present in leaf axils. Inflorescence terminal, a raceme or solitary flower, very rarely an umbel or corymb; bracts leaflike. Flowers often funnelform or campanulate, sometimes tubular or cupular. Tepals 6, free, usually connivent, sometimes strongly recurved or revolute, white, yellow, greenish, or reddish to purplish, nectariferous near base adaxially; nectaries usually narrowly grooved, sometimes fringed with papillae or hairs, rarely flat on outer tepals. Stamens 6; filaments subulate or filiform, sometimes pubescent; anthers dorsifixed, versatile. Ovary 3-loculed; ovules many per locule. Style elongate, slender; stigma swollen, usually 3-lobed. Fruit a loculicidal capsule. Seeds many, arranged like a pile of coins in each valve, flat, narrowly winged all round.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora of China @
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    12. Lilium L.

    Por A.R. Vickery.

    Hierbas bulbíferas. Bulbo de varias escamas. Tallos simples, erectos, foliosos. Hojas angostas. Inflorescencia racemosa o las flores solitarias. Flores pediceladas, grandes, vistosas; perianto infundibuliforme o campanulado; tépalos libres; anteras dorsifijas; estigma 3-lobado. Fruto una cápsula ovoide. Aprox. 80 spp. *Areas templadas del Norte. Lilium spp. están ampliamente distribuidas en el Hemisferio Norte y se cultivan extensamente como ornamentales en otros lugares.

    De las Lilium spp. cultivadas en nuestra área, L. longiflorum Thunb., nativa de Japón, con flores fragantes, de color blanco puro, hasta 12.5 cm, es la más ampliamente cultivada.

    Gloriosa superba L., nativa de África tropical y Asia, que puede ser muy fácilmente diferenciable de Lilium spp. por sus zarcillos foliares y su hábito trepador, es también cultivada ocasionalmente.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora Mesoamericana
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    Lilium longiflorum Thunb., Trans. Linn. Soc. London 2: 333. 1794.

    Hierbas bulbíferas, caulescentes, 45–90 cm de alto; bulbos solitarios o agrupados, 5–10 cm de diámetro, tunicados. Hojas alternas, planas, linear-lanceoladas, 7–18 cm de largo y 9–15 mm de ancho, acuminadas. Inflorescencia un racimo terminal con 1–10 flores, flores pediceladas, actinomorfas; tépalos 6 en 2 verticilos de 3, libres, todos semejantes, petaloides, unguiculados, oblanceolados, 10–18 cm de largo y 2.5–3.8 cm de ancho cerca del ápice, blancos, a menudo teñidos de verde hacia la base; estambres 6, hipóginos, filamentos libres, anteras dorsifijas, introrsas, longitudinalmente dehiscentes; ovario súpero, 3-locular, óvulos numerosos en cada lóculo, estilo solitario, terminal, estigma 3-lobado. Fruto una cápsula loculicida; semillas aplanadas.

    Cultivada, Managua; 800–900 m; fl may; Standley 8330; nativa de Japón, ampliamente cultivada. Género ampliamente cultivado con ca 80 especies nativas del hemisferio norte. "Lirio del valle".

  • Provided by: [A].Flora de Nicaragua
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    Herbs, perennial, bulbose. Bulbs whitish, rarely yellowish or purplish, often stained brown, erect and ovoid (hereafter “ovoid”), irregular and chunky (“chunky”), slanted in ground and ± elongate (“subrhizomatous”), or horizontally elongate (“rhizomatous”), sometimes branching if rhizomatous, rarely if not, 1.4–11.7 × 1.3–19 cm, 0.1–3 times taller than long, annual growth usually obscure; scales (modified leaves) numerous, fleshy and starchy, usually densely covering rhizomes, rarely bearing leaf blades known as basal leaves or their abscission scars, often notched or segmented, longest 0.8–11.9 cm; roots on each bulb either contractile and concentrically wrinkled and thick (to 5 mm), or for nutrition and thinner, fibrous. Stems erect, green, sometimes purple, rarely glaucous, to 3.1 m, ± glabrous, often with adventitious stem roots above bulb. Buds usually rounded in cross section, sometimes ± triangular. Leaves numerous, usually ± evenly distributed along stem, rarely concentrated proximally, scattered or more commonly in 1–12(–24) whorls with some scattered at stem base and apex, 3–20(–40) leaves per whorl, sessile, drooping at tips to ascending, 1.7–29 × 0.2–5.6 cm, 1.6–34 times longer than wide; blade green and somewhat lighter abaxially, rarely paler, linear, lanceolate, elliptic, or obovate, sometimes oblanceolate, especially in proximal leaves, often somewhat lanceolate in distal leaves, margins entire, undulate or not, usually glabrous and smooth or occasionally slightly papillose, sometimes roughened abaxially by ± deltoid epidermal spicules, apex acute to obtuse or rarely acuminate; principal veins usually 3, usually glabrous and smooth abaxially, sometimes with ± deltoid epidermal spicules, rarely impressed adaxially. Inflorescences maturing acropetally, terminal, racemose or umbellate (in small plants), usually open, bracteate, 1–25 (–45)-flowered; bracts usually 1–2 per flower, often with one lanceolate and very wide and the other linear or filiferous. Flowers pendent, nodding, horizontal, ascending, or erect, radially or slightly bilaterally symmetric, fragrant or not; perianth campanulate, funnelform, or with sepals and petals strongly reflexed in form of a “Turk’s-cap”; sepals and petals usually differentiated, sometimes indistinctly so, recurved or reflexed, distinct, orange, red, yellow, pink, or white, usually with adaxial magenta or maroon spots concentrated in proximal 1/2–2/3, ± lanceolate and narrowed or rarely clawed, glabrous (pubescent strip at base in L. lancifolium), nectaries present on each but often more developed on sepals, basal, green, usually hidden but occasionally exposed and forming visible green star at adaxial base of perianth; sepals 3, occasionally ridged abaxially, 3.1–12 × 0.6–2.6 cm, apex usually acute; petals 3, ridged abaxially, with 2 adaxial longitudinal median rounded ridges, 3–11.2 × 0.6–3.4 cm, apex usually acute, often more widely than sepal apex; stamens 6, opposite sepals and petals, distinct, included to strongly exserted; filaments ± parallel to style or spreading, diverging to 31° from flower axis, color variable but usually pale green or nearly translucent; anthers versatile, color variable, usually purplish, becoming darker, oblong, 0.3–2.6 cm; pollen cream, yellow, peach, tan, orange, rust, or brown, usually becoming lighter; pistil compound, 3-lobed, 3-locular, oblong, 2.1–10.5 cm; ovary superior, 0.8–3.5 cm, axile placentas 6, ovules as many as seeds, a few developing without embryos; style initially parallel to flower axis, usually elongating and curving toward periphery, usually pale green, round in cross section; stigma 3-lobed, hollow in older flowers; pedicel not articulate, 0.8–32 cm. Fruits erect, green maturing to brown, capsular, 3-valved, not strongly winged, ± oblong-obovate, 1.5–7.7 × 0.8–3.3 cm, 1.1–4.8 times longer than wide, base constricted, dehiscence loculicidal. Seeds 67–330, light brown with darker ovate embryo in center, 6-ranked, flat

  • Provided by: [C].Flora of North America @
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    Perianth campanulate or funnelform, its 6 tep clawed or sessile, erect to spreading or recurved, often connivent at base, in our spp. spotted with purple toward the base; stamens 6; filaments elongate, often divergent from the style; anthers linear, versatile; style elongate, with 3-lobed stigma; fr a loculicidal capsule with numerous closely packed, flat seeds; tall perennial herbs from a scaly bulb, our spp. with an erect stem bearing numerous narrow lvs (alternate or whorled) and at the summit 1–many erect or nodding, yellow to red fls. 80, N. Temp.

  • Provided by: [G].Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern US and Canada
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    Adams, R. M. and W. J. Dress. 1982. Nodding Lilium species of eastern North America (Liliaceae). Baileya 21: 165–188. Elwes, H. J. 1880. A Monograph of the Genus Lilium. London. Hayashi, K. and S. Kawano. 2000. Molecular systematics of Lilium and allied genera (Liliaceae): Phylogenetic relationships among Lilium and related genera based on rbcL and matK gene sequence data. Pl. Spec. Biol. 15: 73–93. Nishikawa, T. et al. 1999. A molecular phylogeny of Lilium in the internal transcribed spacer region of nuclear ribosomal DNA. J. Molec. Evol. 49: 238–249. Skinner, M. W. 1988. Comparative Pollination Ecology and Floral Evolution in Pacific Coast Lilium. Ph.D. dissertation. Harvard University. Stewart, R. N. 1947. The morphology of somatic chromosomes in Lilium. Amer. J. Bot. 34: 9–27. Synge, P. M. 1980. Lilies: A Revision of Elwes’ Monograph of the Genus Lilium and Its Supplements. New York. Tamura, M. N. 1998c. Liliaceae. In: K. Kubitzki et al., eds. 1990+. The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. 4+ vols. Berlin etc. Vol. 3, pp. 343–353. Woodcock, H. D. and W. T. Stearn. 1950. Lilies of the World: Their Cultivation and Classification. London.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora of North America @
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    Included Species

    Other Local Names

    Lily [Greek lirion, white lily]

     Information From

    Flora de Nicaragua
    W. D. Stevens, C. Ulloa Ulloa, A. Pool & O. M. Montiel. 2001–. Flora de Nicaragua, Tropicos Project. Loaded from Tropicos Project: October 2017
    • A Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Mesoamericana
    Gerrit Davidse, Mario Sousa Sánchez, A. O. Chater, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Instituto de Biología, Missouri Botanical Garden, Natural History Museum (London, England) UNAM, 1994
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora of North America @
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • C Flora of North America Association
    Flora of China @
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    World Flora Online Data. 2021.
    • E CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    MBG Floras Images
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
    Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern US and Canada
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • G Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    World Flora Online Consortium
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • H CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).