Herbs, annual or perennial. Leaves alternate, opposite, or whorled, often sessile; veins 1 or several and campylodromous. Inflorescences spicate, racemose, or rarely capitate. Calyx 5-lobed almost to base. Corolla tube tubular, base spurred; limb 2-lipped; lower lip convex, dilated toward center of upper lip, almost closed at throat, and making corolla personate, 3-lobed, densely glandular hairy; upper lip erect, 2-lobed. Stamens 4, anterior 2 longer; anthers anterior and posterior connivent in 2 pairs, locules parallel, divergent after dehiscence. Stigma apex often emarginate. Capsule ovoid or globose, apically dehiscing by irregular pores, valves irregular. Seeds numerous, flattened, often disclike with a broadly winged margin, rarely 3-angled and wingless or reniform and with a thickened margin.
"Cal deeply 5-parted; cor very irregular, spurred at base, strongly bilabiate, the upper lip erect, 2-lobed, the lower 3-lobed, the throat open (in our native sp.) or closed by a conspicuous elevated palate on the lower lip; stamens 4; stigma capitate; fr ovoid to globose, each locule rupturing irregularly at the top; annual to perennial herbs, generally glabrous, with erect stems, numerous lvs, and several to many fls in terminal racemes. 100+, mostly Eurasian. Several spp., in addition to those listed below, occasionally escape from cult., but do not generally persist."
'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
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