Magnolia L.
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 535. 1753. (1 May 1753)
  • [For Pierre Magnol (1638-1715), professor and director of the botanical garden at Montpellier, France]


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Magnolia L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000022860. Accessed on: 13 Jul 2020'

General Information

Trees or shrubs, evergreen. Bark usually gray and smooth or sometimes coarsely deeply furrowed. Twigs with annular stipular scar. Stipules membranous, free or adnate to petiole and leaving a stipular scar on petiole. Leaves spirally arranged, folded in bud, erect when young; leaf blade thickly papery or leathery, margin entire. Flowers terminal on terminal brachyblasts, solitary, bisexual, large, usually fragrant. Tepals 9-12, in 3 or 4 whorls, subequal. Stamens caducous; filaments flat; connective elongated, forming a short or long tip; anthers dehiscing introrsely. Gynoecium linked to androecium, without a gynophore. Carpels few to many, distinct; styles curved outward; ovules 2 per carpel or rarely in basal carpels 3 or 4; stigmas papillate, located in adaxial side of carpel. Fruit usually ovoid; mature carpels distinct, leathery or woody, dehiscing along dorsal sutures, apex long or shortly beaked. Seeds 1 or 2 per carpel; testa orangish red or bright red, fleshy, oily; endotesta rigid, hilum connected to placentation by filiform funiculus.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Trees or shrubs , deciduous or evergreen. Pith homogeneous or diaphragmed. Leaves distinctly alternate or sometimes crowded in terminal whorl-like clusters; stipules early deciduous, free or adnate to and proximal on petiole. Leaf blade: base deeply cordate or auriculate or cuneate to abruptly narrowed or rounded, margins entire, apex obtuse or acute to acuminate; surfaces abaxially chalky white or green to glaucous, pubescent or glabrous. Flowers protogynous, appearing with or before leaves; tepals 9-15, petaloid, usually spreading, creamy white, rarely greenish, yellow, or orange-yellow, outermost tepals sepaloid, sometimes strongly reflexed, greenish; stamens on elongate torus, early deciduous; filaments white or purple, very short; anthers introrse or latrorse. Follicles persistent, coalescent, forming conelike aggregate, abaxially dehiscent. Seeds with red, pink, or orange oily aril, extruded from follicles and suspended by funiculi. x =19.

  • Provided by: [A].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Evergreen or deciduous trees or shrubs. Stipules free from or adnate to the petiole. Flowers terminal, hermaphrodite, at first enclosed in 1 or more spatha- ceous bracts. Gynoecium sessile or shortly stipitate; carpels numerous or few, free; ovules 2, rarely 3-4 in the lower carpels. Fruiting carpels dehiscing longitudinally, the valves persistent.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Árboles. Estípulas libres de los pecíolos. Fls. con los estambres acuminados en el ápice, planos. Folículos separados, dehiscentes longitudinalmente a todo lo largo, persistentes.

  • Provided by: [G].Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • 5
    • ]. 

    "Perianth of 9–15 similar or scarcely differentiated members, in 3–5 whorls; anthers introrse; pistils many, on an elongate receptacle, ripening into a cone of coherent, extrorsely dehiscent frs; seeds red or pink, remaining attached by a threadlike funiculus for some time after dehiscence; trees or shrubs with large lvs and fls. 80, trop. to warm-temp"

  • Provided by: [F].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Habit

    trees or shrubs

  • Provided by: [B].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Distribution

    Species about 80, the majority in southeast Asia, the others in tropical America and southeastern North America.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES

    Callaway, D.J. 1994. The World of Magnolias. Portland. Coker, W.C. 1943. Magnolia cordata Michaux. J.Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 59: 81-88. Dandy, J.E. Notes on Magnolia and related genera. Unpublished manuscript. Botany Department, The Natural History Museum. London. Heiser, C.B. 1962. Some observations on pollination and compatibility in Magnolia. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 72: 259-266. Johnson, D.L. 1989. Species and Cultivars of the Genus Magnolia (Magnoliaceae) Cultivated in the United States. M.S. thesis. Cornell University. Johnson, D.L. 1989b. Nomenclatural changes in Magnolia. Baileya 23(1): 55-56. McDaniel, J.C. 1966. Variations in the sweet bay magnolias. Morris Arbor. Bull. 17(1): 7-12. Millais, J.G. 1927. Magnolias. London. Rockwell, H.C. 1966. The Genus Magnolia in the United States. M.S. thesis. West Virginia University. Santamour, F.S.Jr. 1969b. Cytology of Magnolia hybrids. I. Morris Arbor. Bull. 20(4): 63-65. Thien, L.B. 1974. Floral biology of Magnolia. Amer. J. Bot. 61(10): 1037-1045. Thien, L.B., W.H. Heimermann, and R.T. Holman. 1975. Floral odors and quantitative taxonomy of Magnolia and Liriodendron. Taxon 24(5/6): 557-568. Tobe, J.D. 1993. A Molecular Systematic Study of Eastern North American Species of Magnolia L. Ph.D. thesis. Clemson University. Treseder, N.G. 1978. Magnolias. Boston. Vázquez-G., J.A. 1990. Taxonomy of the Genus Magnolia in Mexico and Central America. M.S. thesis. University of Wisconsin. Vázquez-G., J.A. 1994. Magnolia (Magnoliaceae) in Mexico and Central America: A synopsis. Brittonia 46(1): 1-23.

  • Provided by: [A].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Included Species

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    [For Pierre Magnol (1638-1715), professor and director of the botanical garden at Montpellier, France]

     Information From

    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • A Flora of North America Association
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • C Missouri Botanical Garden
    Magnoliaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • D CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • E Missouri Botanical Garden
    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • F Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Costa%20Rica
    Hammel, B. E.; Grayum, M. H.; Herrera, C.; Zamora, N. Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2003-2014
    • G Missouri Botanical Garden
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • H CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).