Malaxis Sol. ex Sw.
  • Prodr. 8, 119. 1788.
  • Adder’s-mouth [Greek malaxis, softening, in reference to soft and tender texture of leaves]


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Malaxis Sol. ex Sw. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000022944. Accessed on: 27 Nov 2020'

General Information

Herbs, terrestrial or rarely epiphytic, occasionally holomycotrophic. Roots hairy. Stem cylindric to pseudobulbous, fleshy, often creeping and rooting in basal part. Leaves, if present, thinly textured to fleshy, usually plicate, petiole sheathing at base. Inflorescences erect, racemose, unbranched; floral bracts persistent, lanceolate or setose. Flowers not resupinate or resupinate, green, brown, yellow, pink, or purple. Dorsal sepal spreading, free; lateral sepals free or fused, spreading. Petals often narrower than sepals, free, spreading; lip erect, flat but sometimes concave at base, entire to lobed, auriculate at base or lacking auricles, apical margin entire or toothed, lacking a spur, callus absent or present and cushionlike or obscurely transversely ridged. Column lacking a foot; anther cap dorsal, attached by a slender filament, locules opening ventrally; pollinia 4, waxy, lacking appendages or rarely with 1 or 2 tiny viscidia; stigma semicircular or ovate; rostellum often obtuse or emarginate at apex.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    MALAXIS Sol. ex Sw.

    Terrestres o epífitas, pequeñas, erectas o rastreras; cuando pseudobulbos o cormos presentes, éstos 1- ó 2-foliados o de otro modo con hojas dísticas a lo largo del tallo. Hojas membranáceas, no articuladas, a menudo conduplicadas, con limbos generalmente anchos; los pecíolos envainados abrazando el escapo floral. Inflorescencia terminal, un racimo pedunculado, corto y subcorimboso o subumbelado, o alargado, las flores pequeñas; sépalos similares, libres o los laterales connados en la base; pétalos desde iguales a los sépalos hasta filiformes, a menudo muy recurvados o enrollados; labelo libre de la columna, sésil, simple o lobado, esencialmente simple en Nicaragua, erecto o patente, generalmente cordiforme o auriculado en la base, con las aurículas abrazando la columna; columna corta, terete, la antera terminal, erecta o suberecta, persistente, de 2 celdas, polinios 2 ó 4, ceráceos.

    Género con ca 300 especies de las regiones tropicales y templadas, concentradas en los trópicos de Asia y Oceanía; 9 especies se conocen en Nicaragua y 2 más se esperan encontrar. Este género está relacionado con Liparis y frecuentemente ocasiona problemas taxonómicos.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Terrestres o epífitas; tallos rizomatosos o (usualmente) cormos globosos o pseudobulbos cónico-ovoides(ver más adelante). Hojas 1 ó 2, herbáceas, no articuladas, pecioladas, las vainas que abrazan la base de la infl.Infl. terminal, erecta, racemosa, frecuentemente subumbelada, multifloreada. Fls. resupinadas o no, usualmenteerectas con el labelo en el lado exterior, sésiles o largo-pediceladas; sépalos más anchos que los pétalos lineares;labelo usualmente con una cavidad basal marcada, bipartida; columna muy corta; antera suberecta; polinios 4,sin caudículas, pero con viscidios minúsculos.

  • Provided by: [H].Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Herbs, terrestrial to semiepiphytic, glabrous. Roots few, fibrous, 0.3–1 mm wide. Stems swollen at base into pseudobulb, ± globose, glabrous. Leaves 1–3(–5), with sheathing base; blade elliptic, ovate, or lanceolate. Inflorescences terminal, racemes, spicate racemes, corymbose racemes, or subumbellate racemes; floral bracts inconspicuous, lanceolate, subulate, or triangular-acuminate. Flowers 2–160, resupinate or not, erect or spreading, sessile or minutely to strongly pedicellate; sepals spreading, distinct or lateral sepals basally connate, ovate, elliptic, or lanceolate, 1–6 mm, margins revolute or not; petals spreading or recurved, filiform to linear, lanceolate, or triangular, usually much narrower than sepals; lip ovate or lanceolate, cordate, unlobed to 3-lobed, concave or saccate, widest proximal to middle, base auriculate or truncate; column free; anther terminal; pollinaria 4, waxy; 1 pollinarium or 2 separate hemipollinaria; viscidia yellow or orange. Fruits capsules; previous year’s fruiting stem and capsules frequently present during current year’s anthesis. x = 14, 15, 18, ca. 20, ca. 21, 22.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 12
    • ]. 

    Small, erect or repent, terrestrial or epiphytic herbs with cormous pseudobulbs or repent stems. Section EUMALAXIS with cormous, usually hypogaeous, pseudo- bulbs bearing 1 or 2 leaves. Section BLEPHARIGLOTTIS with more or less elongated stems and leaves scattered along them. Leaves 1-3, continued at the base into a sheathing petiole, membranaceous, the lamina usually broad. Scape or peduncle slender, usually elongated. I-nflorescence a spicate or subumbellate raceme; flowers small. Sepals free or the laterals connate, subequal, spreading. Petals equal to the sepals or usually shorter, narrow to subfiliform. Lip erect or spreading, sessile, entire or lobed, usually cordate or auriculate, with the auricles embracing the column, usually broader than the sepals, concave at the base (or plane in Malaxis Wendlandii). Column very short, terete, usually at right angles to the axis of the lip; anther erect or suberect, persistent, 2-celled, the cells often nearly separate; pollinia 4, 2 in each cell of the anther, waxy, their long axis parallel to the long axis of the column or nearly so; caudicle none.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora de Panama
  • "Sep and pet unlike, the lateral sep ± parallel behind the lip, the pet much smaller, spreading or recurved; lip relatively broad, variously shaped, often auriculate at base; column very short, in our spp. ca 1 mm or less; pollinia 4; small orchids from a corm, with 1–5 lvs at the base or near the middle of the low scape, and a terminal raceme of small fls. 200, irregularly widespread."

  • Provided by: [F].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 14
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Column short; stigma ventral; anther terminal; pollinia ovoid, 4 in 2 pairs joined at the base.

  • Provided by: [K].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Sepals and petals free, similar or dissimilar, lip larger than tepals, entire or lobed, often ± auriculate at the base; often with dentate margins.

  • Provided by: [K].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Dwarf terrestrial, lithophytic or epiphytic herb with creeping rhizomes or fusiform tuberous roots.

  • Provided by: [K].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Inflorescence erect, terminal, racemose or subumbellate, few- to many-flowered.

  • Provided by: [K].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Stems leafy, ± swollen at the base; leaves thin-textured, plicate.

  • Provided by: [K].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Flowers small, resupinate in the Flora Zambesiaca area, green, yellow-green, buff, orange or purple.

  • Provided by: [K].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Small terrestrial lithophytic or epiphytic herbs arising from a creeping rhizome

  • Provided by: [L].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Inflorescence terminal, erect, mostly densely many-flowered, racemose to subumbellate

  • Provided by: [L].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Flowers mostly small, non-resupinate, green, buff, orange, or purple

  • Provided by: [L].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Secondary stems erect, leafy, ± swollen at base, clustered or not, 1–several-leaved

  • Provided by: [L].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Leaves thin-textured, plicate, mostly ovate or broadly ovate, with sheathing ± elongate leaf-bases

  • Provided by: [L].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Column short, porrect, ± auriculate; stigma ventral; anther terminal, flap-like; pollinia ovoid, 4 in 2 pairs joined at base.

  • Provided by: [L].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Sepals and petals subsimilar or petals filiform, spreading

  • Provided by: [L].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Lip larger than other floral segments, flat, entire or lobed, ± auriculate at base on either side of column, margins ± toothed

  • Provided by: [L].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Herbes'terrestres, à rhizome allongé et à tige simple.'Feuilles'basilaires, subbasilaires ou caulinaires, parfois pétiolées.'Inflorescence'terminale, en racème spiciforme ou corymbiforme; bractées petites, membraneuses.'Fleurs résupinées; périanthe de coloration variée; sépales et pétales libres, semblables ou dissemblables; labelle simple, parfois orné de crêtes ou de poils; gynostème court, droit; anthère à 4 pollinies céracées; stigmates soudés en coupe; rostelle simple.\n\t\t\t\tGenre pantropical, présent aussi en Amérique septentrionale et en Europe, comprenant plus de 200 espèces. Pour la Flore : 4 espèces.

  • Provided by: [I].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    • Source: [
    • 15
    • ]. 

    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES

    Ames, O. and C. Schweinfurth. 1935. Nomenclatural studies in Malaxis and Spiranthes. Bot. Mus. Leafl. 3: 113–133. Catling, P. M. 1991. Systematics of Malaxis bayardii and M. unifolia. Lindleyana 6: 3–23.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 12
    • ]. 

    Included Species

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Adder’s-mouth [Greek malaxis, softening, in reference to soft and tender texture of leaves]

     Information From

    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • A Missouri Botanical Garden
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • C Flora of North America Association
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • E Missouri Botanical Garden
    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • F Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • G Missouri Botanical Garden
    Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Costa%20Rica
    Hammel, B. E.; Grayum, M. H.; Herrera, C.; Zamora, N. Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2003-2014
    • H Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    https://www.floredafriquecentrale.be
    • I http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
    Orchidaceae
    • J CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • K
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • L
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • M CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).