Manihot Mill.
  • Gard. Dict. Abr. (ed. 4) vol. 2. 1754. (28 Jan 1754)
  • Cassava, yuca, manioc [From Brazilian vernacular name mani oca, wood spirit root, alluding to use]


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Manihot Mill. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000023040. Accessed on: 02 Jun 2020'

General Information

Trees, shrubs, or herbs, monoecious (rarely dioecious), sometimes with fleshy root-tubers; stems and branches with prominently large leaf scars; latex white; indumentum absent. Leaves alternate; stipules small, usually caducous; petioles long, apex glandular or stipellate; leaf blade usually palmately lobed or dissected, sometimes uppermost subentire. Inflorescences terminal or pseudoaxillary, mostly racemose-paniculate, usually bisexual, with long peduncles; flowers apetalous. Male flowers: calyx synsepalous; sepals 5, imbricate, petaloid; disk intrastaminal, usually 10-lobed; stamens 8-15, in 2 series; filaments free, delicate; anthers 2-locular, longitudinally dehiscent, connectives hairy at apex; pistillode small or absent. Female flowers: sepals 5, free or connate, sometimes deciduous; disk annular, sometimes with staminodes; ovary 3(or 5)-locular; ovules 1 per locule; styles short, free, mostly multifid or lacerate (rarely bifid); stigmas broad. Fruit a capsule, 3-valved; columella often persistent. Seeds carunculate; testa dry, crustaceous; endosperm fleshy; cotyledon broad and flat.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    MANIHOT Mill.

    Por Grady L. Webster

    Arboles, arbustos, bejucos o hierbas perennes, raíces frecuentemente tuberosas, tallos con látex; plantas monoicas. Hojas palmatilobadas, raramente enteras, eglandulares; largamente pecioladas, estipuladas. Inflorescencias paniculadas o racemosas, terminales, axilares o supraaxilares, cáliz petaloide, flores apétalas; flores estaminadas con cáliz obviamente gamofilo, lobos imbricados, disco intrastaminal, entero o lobado, estambres 10, filamentos libres, pistilodio rudimentario o ausente; flores pistiladas largamente pediceladas, cáliz profundamente 5-lobado, disco pulviniforme, ovario 3-locular, a veces acostillado o alado, 1 óvulo por lóculo, estilos basalmente connados, dilatados o lacerados. Fruto capsular; semillas lisas, carunculadas.

    Género con ca 100 especies, distribuido desde los Estados Unidos hasta Argentina, raramente en las Antillas; 5 especies se encuentran en Nicaragua. El género tiene gran importancia económica por el cultivo de la yuca, M. esculenta.

    D. Rogers y S.G. Appan. Manihot and Manihotoides (Euphorbiaceae). Fl. Neotrop. 13: 1–274. 1973.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora de Nicaragua
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    Herbs, subshrubs, shrubs, or trees, perennial, unarmed, usually monoecious, rarely dioecious; hairs unbranched or absent; latex white. Leaves persistent or deciduous, alternate, simple [palmately compound]; stipules present, deciduous; petiole present [rudimentary], glands absent; stipels present at apex; blade usually palmately lobed, rarely unlobed, lobes undivided or secondarily lobed, margins entire, repand, or serrate, laminar glands absent; venation palmate (pinnate in lobes). Inflorescences bisexual (pistillate flowers proximal, staminate distal), terminal or axillary, racemes or panicles; glands subtending each bract 0. Pedicels present, pistillate often elongating in fruit. Staminate flowers: sepals 5, petaloid, 7–20 mm, valvate, connate 1/2 length; petals 0; nectary intrastaminal, cushion-shaped, lobed; stamens (6–8)–10, in 2 whorls, distinct; pistillode absent. Pistillate flowers: sepals 5, petaloid, distinct; petals 0; nectary annular, lobed or unlobed; pistil 3-carpellate; styles 3, connate basally, unbranched, flabellate, prominently papillate. Fruits capsules. Seeds globose to oblong; caruncle present. x = 9.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    Trees, shrubs, or herbs, with milky latex; monoecious; roots often tuberous. Leaves alternate, lcng-petiolate, stipulate; blades mostly palmately lobed or divided, without distinct foliar glands. Inflorescences terminal (sometimes pseudo- axillary) panicles, the pistillate several on basal branches, the staminate + race- mose along the central axis; flowers with a 5-merous uniseriate perianth (petaloid calyx), petals absent. Staminate flowers with distinctly gamosepalous calyx, lobes imbricate in bud; disc central, intrastaminal, entire or 5-lobed, lobes ? bifid; stamens 10, biseriate, the outer opposite the calyx-lobes, the filaments free, the anthers introrse, dehiscing longitudinally; pollen grains globose, periporate, exine clavate; pistillode rudimentary or absent. Pistillate flowers long-pedicellate; calyx more deeply lobed than in staminate flowers; disc pulviniform, staminodia some- times present; ovary of 3 carpels, smooth to ribbed or winged, the ovules 1 per locule, the styles connate below, the stigmata dilated to lacerate. Fruits capsular; columella often persistent; seeds carunculate, with thin crustaceous testa, endo- sperm copious, the embryo with broad palmately veined cotyledons. Over 150 species have been described in this strictly American genus, most of them from Brazil. The species of Manihot are notoriously difficult to discrimi- nate, and the total number may be considerably reduced when the genus is mono- graphically revised. In addition to the two species enumerated below, at least one other, M. glaziovii Muell.-Arg. (the Cea-ra rubber tree of Brazil), may be found in cultivation. It is readily distinguished by its arboreal habit, peltate leaves, and larger fruits (2 cm in diam or more).

  • Provided by: [H].Flora de Panama
  • Hierbas, arbustos o árboles, con las raíces a veces tuberosas, monoicos (raramente dioicos), con indumento de tricomas simples, la savia blanca; estípulas pequeñas, deciduas. Hojas alternas, el pecíolo largo, sin glándulas; lámina simple, palmadamente lobulada, de otra forma entera a aserrada, sin glándulas. Infls.  terminales o (a veces) pseudoaxilares, usualmente bisexuales, paniculadas, con brácteas pequeñas, las fls. estaminadas centrales y distales, las fls. pistiladas usualmente proximales. Fls. estaminadas pediceladas, con disco central, intraestaminal, entero ó 5-lobulado (con los lóbulos ± bífidos); sépalos 5, connatos basalmente en un cáliz petaloide; pétalos ausentes; estambres 10, en 2 verticilos, los filamentos separados; pistiloide rudimentario o ausente. Fls. pistiladas pediceladas, con disco pulviniforme; sépalos 5, connatos basalmente en un cáliz petaloide; pétalos ausentes; estaminodios a veces presentes; ovario trilocular; óvulos 1 por lóculo; estilos connatos basalmente, los estigmas dilatados o lobulados. Frs. capsulares, inermes; semillas lisas, carunculadas.

  • Provided by: [G].Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
  • Morphology

    Seeds carunculate; testa crustaceous; albumen fleshy; cotyledons flat, broad.

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    Fruits septicidally dehiscent into 3 bivalved cocci, smooth or longitudinally winged

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    Female flowers large; calyx as in the ♂ flowers; petals 0; disc hypogynous, entire or lobed; ovary trilocular, smooth or longitudinally winged; 1 ovule per locule; styles shortly connate at the base, variously dilated and lobed

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    Male flowers large; calyx campanulate or tubular, 5-lobed, often pigmented, with the lobes imbricate or contorted; petals 0; stamens 10, in 2 whorls, free, inserted between the lobes or glands of the disc; anthers dorsifixed, dehiscing longitudinally; pistillode, when present, small, trifid, in the middle of the disc

  • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Inflorescences racemose or paniculate, terminal or axillary in the uppermost leaf-axils, generally composed of 1 or more long-pedicellate basal ♀ flowers and several short-pedicellate ♂ flowers; bracts small or large, sometimes leafy, entire or laciniate

  • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Leaves alternate, simple, peltate or not, entire or more usually deeply 3–11-palmatilobed to -palmatipartite, the lobes entire or themselves lobulate, petiolate or rarely sessile; stipules small or large, sometimes leafy

  • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Usually glaucescent and ± pruinose monoecious laticiferous shrubs or trees, rarely herbs

  • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Monoecious often glaucous and pruinose laticiferous trees or shrubs, rarely herbs.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Female flowers long-pedicellate; tepals 5, free, imbricate, caducous; petals absent; disk entire or lobulate, pigmented; ovary 3-locular with 1 ovule per loculus; styles 3, short, connate at the base, often dilated or lobed.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Male flowers pedicellate; buds ovoid, ellipsoid or fusiform; calyx campanulate or tubular, 5-lobed, the lobes imbricate or contorted, often pigmented; petals absent; disk deeply lobed or consisting of separate glands; stamens 10, biverticillate, free, inserted between the lobes or glands of the disk; anthers dorsifixed, longitudinally dehiscent; pistillode small, trifid, or absent.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Seeds carunculate; testa crustaceous; albumen fleshy; cotyledons broad, flat.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Fruits subglobose, ± smooth or longitudinally 6-winged, dehiscing septicidally into 3 bivalved cocci; endocarp woody; columella persistent.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Indumentum, when present, simple.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Inflorescences terminal, rarely axillary, racemose or paniculate, bisexual with 1–few female flowers and several male flowers; bracts sometimes foliaceous.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Leaves alternate, petiolate, stipulate, simple, sometimes peltate, entire or more usually deeply palmately 3–11-lobed or -partite; the lobes entire or lobulate, penninerved.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Habit

    Trees, shrubs, or herbs

  • Provided by: [H].Flora de Panama
  • Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES Croizat, L. 1942. A study of Manihot in North America. J. Arnold Arbor. 23: 216–225. Rogers, D. J. 1963. Studies of Manihot esculenta Crantz and related species. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 90: 43–54. Rogers, D. J. and S. G. Appan. 1973. Manihot, Manihotoides (Euphorbiaceae). In: Organization for Flora Neotropica. 1968+. Flora neotropica. 110+ nos. New York. No. 13. Webster, G. L. 1994. Synopsis of the genera and suprageneric taxa of Euphorbiaceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 81: 33–144. Wurdack, K., P. Hoffman, and M. W. Chase. 2005. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of uniovulate Euphorbiaceae (Euphorbiaceae sensu stricto) using plastid rbcL and trnL-F DNA sequences. Amer. J. Bot. 92: 1397–1420.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    Included Species

    Synonyms

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Cassava, yuca, manioc [From Brazilian vernacular name mani oca, wood spirit root, alluding to use]

      Bibliography

     Information From

    Euphorbiaceae
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • C Flora of North America Association
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • D
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • E Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
    Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Costa%20Rica
    Hammel, B. E.; Grayum, M. H.; Herrera, C.; Zamora, N. Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2003-2014
    • G Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • H Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • I
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • J CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).