Manilkara Adans.
  • Fam. Pl. 2: 166, 574. 1763. (Jul-Aug 1763)
  • Balata tree, bully, bullet, purgio, quinilla, sapodilla [Malabar Manil, from Portuguese Manilhas Insulas (Manila, Philippines), and kara, edible fruit]


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Manilkara Adans. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000023042. Accessed on: 23 Oct 2021'

General Information

Trees or shrubs. Leaves leathery to almost leathery, densely lateral veined; stipules early deciduous. Flowers axillary, clustered. Sepals 6, in 2 whorls. Corolla lobes 6, outside each with 2 lobular appendages. Stamens 6; staminodes 6, alternating with corolla lobes, ovate, apex acuminate, irregularly serrate, fimbriate to lobate. Ovary 6--14-locular. Fruit a berry, 1--6-seeded. Seeds compressed, scar lateral and elongate.

  • Provided by: [I].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 12
    • ]. 

    1. Manilkara Adans., nom. cons.

    Por T.D. Pennington, A.K. Monro, S.P. Thornton-Wood y S. Knapp.

     

    Achras L., Chiclea Lundell, Eichleria Hartog, Kaukenia Kuntze, Manilkara subgen. Euachras Gilly, Manilkara sect. Eumanilkara Dubard, Manilkara subgen. Manilkaropsis Gilly, Manilkara subgen. Nisperoa Gilly, Manilkariopsis (Gilly) Lundell, Mimusops subgen. Manilkara (Adans.) Pierre et Urban, Mimusops subgen. Eumimusops Miq., Mimusops sect. Murianthe Baill., Mimusops subgen. Muriea (Hartog) Pierre et Urban, Mimusops sect. Muriea (Hartog) Hartog, Mimusops subgen. Ternaria (A. DC.) Engl., Mimusops sect. Ternaria A. DC., Mopania Lundell, Muriea M. Hartog, Nispero Aubrév., Sapota Mill., Shaferodendron Gilly, Synarrhena Fisch. et C.A. Mey.

    Árboles monoicos inermes o rara vez arbustos con ramificación simpódica; corteza con un látex blanco. Ápice del vástago frecuentemente cubierto con cera transparente semejante a barniz. Estípulas pequeñas caducas presentes o ausentes. Hojas dispuestas en espiral, muy rara vez opuestas o verticiladas, frecuentemente densamente agrupadas en el ápice del tallo; venación broquidódroma con una nervadura marginal; nervadura secundaria generalmente recta, paralela, ascendente, enlazándose por debajo del margen y

  • Provided by: [E].Flora Mesoamericana
    • Source: [
    • 13
    • ]. 

    MANILKARA Adans.

    Espinas ausentes; plantas hermafroditas. Hojas alternas, densamente agrupadas en el ápice del brote (alternas pero no agrupadas en espiral, opuestas o verticiladas, no en nuestras especies), nervadura broquidódroma, nuestras con nervios secundarios rectos y paralelos e intersecundarios y terciarios paralelos a los secundarios y descendiendo desde el cordón marginal, nervadura de orden superior moderada a finamente reticulada; estípulas caducas y pequeñas o ausentes. Inflorescencia axilar o en las axilas de las hojas caídas, flores en fascículos o solitarias; cáliz de 2 verticilos de 3 (raramente 2 ó 4) sépalos, los del verticilo exterior valvados (ligeramente imbricados); corola blanco-verdosa, blanca o crema, tubo frecuentemente mucho más corto que los lobos, menos frecuentemente igualándolos o excediéndolos, lobos en todas nuestras especies típicamente 6 (raramente 7 u 8), erectos o patentes, simples a divididos en 3 segmentos hasta la base, segmentos laterales de igual tamaño a más largos que el medio; estambres en todas nuestras especies típicamente 6 (–12 en otras partes), filamentos pequeños a bien desarrollados, generalmente adnados al ápice del tubo de la corola (raramente en el tubo), exertos o incluidos, estaminodios en todas nuestras especies típicamente 6 (–9 en otras partes), enteros o variadamente dentados o lobados; ovario 6–12-locular, óvulos axilares o basiventrales, estilo exerto. Fruto baya con (1) 2–varias semillas; semillas elipsoides a obovoides, lateralmente marcadamente comprimidas, testa brillante, cicatriz angostamente alargada, basiventral o adaxial y casi de toda la longitud de la semilla, endosperma copioso.

    Género pantropical con ca 65 especies, 3 se conocen en Nicaragua. Una especie adicional, M. spectabilis (Pittier) Standl., de los bosques de tierras bajas del Atlántico en Costa Rica, podría encontrarse en Nicaragua. Vegetativamente es similar a M. chicle pero los lobos de la corola son 3-segmentados y los estaminodios tienen margen profundamente fimbriado. Las frutas de las especies nicaragüenses se conocen como "Níspero".

  • Provided by: [D].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 14
    • ]. 

    Trees, unarmed. Leaves alternate; blades coriaceous, the primary laterals numerous, fine, rather closely spaced, often subobscure, straight (not arcuate ncar the margin). Flowers fasciculate in the axils of leaves or leaf-sc ars or solitary; sepals usually 6, infrequently 4 or 8, in 2{ whorls of (42)3(4); corolla-lobes as many as the sepals, each with a pair of dorsal ? petaloid appendages arising from the base, occasionally these fused to the lobes or lacking; staminodes usually petaloid, rarely minute or replaced by functional-stamens; stamens as many as corolla-lobes or rarely twice as many (morphologically 2 whorls), typically at- tached to the corolla at the juncture of the tube and lobes; ovary often pubescent, 6 to 14-celled, the ovules affixed laterally. Fruit 1 to several-seeded, fleshy; seed compressed, the scar rather elongate, lateral or basilateral (but equalling or sur- passing the middle of the seed), more or less linear, the endosperm copious.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora de Panama
  • Shrubs or trees. Stems not armed, tomentose or glabrous. Leaves persistent, alternate; stipules present or absent; petiole present; blade: base rounded to cuneate, apex retuse to acuminate, surfaces hairy or glabrous. Inflorescences fascicles or solitary flowers. Flowers: sepals 6 in 2 whorls of 3, outer valvate, darker, abaxially densely hairy; petals 6[-9], white or yellow, glabrous or sparsely hairy, lobes undivided, shorter than or exceeding corolla tube; stamens 6[-12], distinct [basally connate with staminodes]; staminodes [absent or 1-]6[-12], alternate with stamens, erect or incurved, petaloid, triangular-lanceolate, glabrous or hairy; pistil 5-12 [-14]-carpellate; ovary 5-12[-14]-locular, glabrous or hairy; placentation axile or basiventral. Berries brown [yellow-green, orange, red, black, or purple], ellipsoid or depressed-globose to subglobose, glabrous. Seeds [1-]2-10, brown, laterally compressed; hilum linear; embryo vertical; endosperm present. x = [12,] 13.

  • Provided by: [H].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 16
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Stamens 6, epipetalous; anthers extrorse.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Corolla of 6 members joined at the base into a short tube, each member comprising a median and two lateral segments.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Seeds ellipsoid to obovoid, with narrow linear or large and broad lateral scar; endosperm abundant.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Fruit a fleshy or leathery berry, 1-several-seeded.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Ovary with 6–16 locules, densely pilose, with long slender glabrous-style.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Staminodes 6, alternating with stamens, glabrous, petaloid to ligulate, dentate or laciniate, erect, not forming a sheath round the gynoecium.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Sepals 6, in two dissimilar whorls of 3, the inner ones thinner in texture and paler than the outer.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Stipules absent or soon caducous.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Trees and shrubs, with leaves often borne in terminal clusters.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Flowers often numerous, borne in axils of current and recently-fallen leaves, long-pedicellate.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Leaves often with oppressed silvery indumentum on lower surface.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Corolla of 6 members, fused at base into a short tube, lobes usually divided again into 3 segments

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Stamens 6, epipetalous; anther-dehiscence extrorse

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Flowers usually many, clustered in axils of current or recently fallen leaves, long-pedicellate

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Sepals 6, arranged in two dissimilar whorls of 3, free or slightly fused

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Fruit baccate, fleshy or dryish and coriaceous, 1-several-seeded

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Seeds ellipsoid to obovoid, laterally compressed; scar basiventral (at least in East Africa), narrowly elliptic to subcircular (not in East Africa); albumen present; cotyledons flattened and foliaceous.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Staminodes 6, alternating with stamens, ± ovate and petaloid to ± ligulate, glabrous, dentate, laciniate or sometimes bifurcate

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Ovary with 6–16 locules; ovules solitary, axile, anatropous to campylotropous

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Leaf-lamina frequently obovate or elliptic, coriaceous; lower surface with very closely appressed indumentum, giving a silvery light-reflecting effect or subglabrous; midrib prominently raised beneath, primary and secondary lateral nerves closely parallel, venation reticulate

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Leaves terminal; stipules absent or sometimes present and then soon falling away

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Trees or rarely shrubs

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Habit

    Trees

  • Provided by: [F].Flora de Panama
  • Distribution

    Thirteen species are known in North America, four occurring in Panama.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora de Panama
  • Included Species

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Balata tree, bully, bullet, purgio, quinilla, sapodilla [Malabar Manil, from Portuguese Manilhas Insulas (Manila, Philippines), and kara, edible fruit]

     Information From

    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • A Missouri Botanical Garden
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • C
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Mesoamericana
    http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/fm/
    Gerrit Davidse, Mario Sousa Sánchez, A. O. Chater, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Instituto de Biología, Missouri Botanical Garden, Natural History Museum (London, England) UNAM, 1994
    • E Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • G
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • H Flora of North America Association
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • I Missouri Botanical Garden
    Sapotaceae
    • J CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • K CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).